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Her rise to fame has been a long road that has left her with a medal cabinet bursting at the seams. It may be easy for anyone to rest on their laurels as a fourth dan black belt Judo champion, but not Rousey. In she made her Mixed Martial Arts debut. Despite all of these achievements, Rousey has also found time in her hectic schedule to model regularly and appear in three movies; Expendables 3Entourage and Furious 7. On this form, throwing a wager on Rousey to take down her opponent in the first round would be a smart move. Eight of those 10 victories were by submission.

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The intervention was designed to help simplify the application process and provide accurate information. The intervention tried to merge complex financial forms to the regular tax filing. We randomly assigned individuals to one of three treatments — one was information for students a few months before final college decisions on attendance.

The controls include race, gender, age, prior college experience, parents' education levels, and family income. Robust standard errors appear in parentheses. The information we provide comes at the end of the application process. Maybe students need the information earlier. We tried the same experiment with younger students — years before college.

No impact in our studies when provided by itself. Perhaps we have to go even earlier. Perhaps we have the wrong information. Most studies of information show no impact on attendance decision in college. Table 1. InsideTrack wanted to prove itself to college partners.

They used randomized trials to show colleges their impact. Trying to discern other relationships? Not only is this just plain fun, but I snuck in a little education too. This drawing depicts Viking ships besieging Paris in the year Vikings voyaged into Russia and as far as the Mediterranean. Another just plain fun idea is the Migration Pedigree Chart. This will also help you figure out the estimated percentages of ethnicity you might reasonably expect. Another idea for helping kids learn at home and they might accidentally learn about figuring percentages in the process.

ThruLines is the Ancestry tool that assists DNA testers with trees connect the dots to common ancestors with their matches. There are ways to optimize your tree to improve your connections, both in terms of accuracy and the number of Thrulines that form. I keep meaning to…. Of course, as expected, just like any other organism, mutations have occurred since then.

Goodness knows, we are all tired of Covid and the resulting safety protocols. Keep on keeping on. We need you on the other side. Stay home, mask up when you must leave, stay away from other people outside your family that you live with, wash your hands, and get vaccinated as soon as you can. And until we can all see each other in person again, hopefully, sooner than later, keep on doing genealogy. Free articles like these are your guide. What is triangulation, why it is important for genealogy, and how does one go about triangulating?

More importantly, why do genealogists care? In a nutshell, triangulation allows you to discover or confirm your ancestors or ancestral lines when:. This article explains chromosome matching and triangulation step-by-step to help you sort through your matches.

A chromosome browser is essential to genetic genealogy and specifically, to triangulation, allowing you to visualize your DNA matches on your chromosomes. This article starts at the beginning with what a chromosome browser looks like and explains each step along the way. Genetic Affairs has numerous tools that facilitate and assist with different aspects of triangulation including their AutoClusters, AutoTree, AutoPedigree and AutoSegment features.

Each of the major vendors, except Ancestry, provides a chromosome browser along with some type of triangulation tool. Additionally, third parties who do not perform DNA testing offer great supplemental tools. GEDmatch and DNAPainter both provide triangulation tools, allowing you to take advantage of matches from multiple vendors.

MyHeritage is the only vendor to incorporate a triangulation tool with shared matches and AutoClusters into their solution. Of course, MyHeritage also provides traditional genealogical research records that they combine with DNA matches and trees in their Theories of Family Relativity feature , showing potential tree connections between you and your matches to common ancestors. You will find a number of people who have tested at Ancestry and other vendors, then transferred to GEDmatch to use their chromosome browser and other tools to obtain additional matches.

GEDmatch is the only vendor who triangulates all of your matches at one time — providing a comprehensive report. I utilize DNAPainter as a central location to house all of my identified segments from all vendors. The following vendors do NOT support uploads, but you can download your DNA file from these vendors and upload to the vendors above:. DNA Tidbit Challenge: Define goals for answering genealogy questions, allowing you to focus your efforts.

For a short article about the difference between Y, mitochondrial, and autosomal DNA, please click here. For more seasoned genealogists, we may have taken all the tests and answered many questions already, but still, our research needs to be guided by goals. I regularly check my matches.

I still think I may have had a half-sibling that is yet to be located. My broad goals have changed a bit over time. Unfortunately, in this case, no one descends correctly for mitochondrial DNA , meaning through all females to the current generation which can be male. In the first couple of close generations, using autosomal DNA, we can confirm ancestral lines and parentage. We can confirm our parents and our grandparents, but further back in that, we have to use a combination of our tree and other tools to confirm our paper genealogy.

In closer generations, autosomal DNA might help, but not beyond the first couple of generations. Second cousins always match autosomally, but beyond that, not so much. Using Y DNA , if we can find a suitable candidate, I can confirm that my Estes ancestor actually does descend through the Estes line indicated by my paper trail. If they do test and share their match information with me, and others from that same line have tested, I can see their earliest known ancestors on their Y DNA match page.

If someone from that line has already tested and has joined a surname project, you can see their results on the public project page if they have authorized public project display. This is also one way of determining whether or not your line has already tested, especially if you have no Y DNA matches to the expected surname and ancestor. To see if projects exist for your surnames, you can click here and scroll down to the search box, below.

Confirmation of a specific ancestor requires two things without Y DNA testing :. Step-by-step transfer instructions are found here. You can read all about how to use DNAPainter, here. I identify every match that I can and paint those segments to that ancestor. The fact that several people descend from Henry and Nancy, through multiple children, confirms this segment back to that couple. What about that purple person?

However, I know for sure at least part of that matching segment, the burgundy portion, is through Henry Bolton and Nancy Mann, or their ancestors. In the above example, I mentioned that each segment goes back to a couple.

Clearly, in the next generation, that segment either comes from either the father or mother, or parts from both perhaps. In this case, that oldest burgundy segment originated with either Henry Bolton or Nancy Mann. Does that make sense? Just keep that in mind. I need to see if any of my other matches have Babb as a common name. Now, I can search for Babb at any of the testing vendors to see what, if anything, I can discover. I suggest that you look at each ancestor, and in particular each end-of-line ancestor thinking about where you can focus to obtain answers and reveal new ancestors.

Covid is already spiking and many families have already canceled holiday plans. This situation, combined with the seasonal darkness and cold will make things even more difficult for people in the northern hemisphere. DNA Tidbits will be enjoyable to do together because we can share our findings. They will range from introductory to a little more complex so everyone can play, and learn. View your 5 highest matches that triangulate. Triangulation, of course, means that three people — you, a match plus someone else not a direct relative meaning not parents or siblings all match each other on the same segment.

Can you tell how the person or people you triangulate with match? Through which ancestral line? You might be able to discern this by viewing each triangulated match to see:. Have you painted those segments at DNAPainter? Did you find something unexpected? This is probably more detailed than future Tidbits because Tidbits are designed to be quick for you and me, both. Family Tree DNA — My top 5 triangulated autosomal matches are people assigned to one parent or the other.

Their note icon is grey meaning nothing recorded there. Unfortunately, Christopher has uploaded no tree. He is, however, assigned to my paternal side with a sizeable piece of matching DNA across multiple segments. Looking at who we match in common, I can discern immediately that we connect through my great-grandparents, Lazarus Estes and Elizabeth Vannoy because we match people who descend from both of those lines upstream of that couple.

Unfortunately, none of my top 5 triangulated matches had trees that were productive in terms of identifying a common ancestor. I reviewed the DNA match to see if Jason and I share triangulated segments with other people, indicated by the purple icon on my shared matches with Jason.

My grandparents were not related to each other. This indicates that Jason and I are related through two different lines that lived in the same area and intermarried. I need to send Jason a message. Keep in mind that this tree is not uploaded, but genetically created by 23andMe with the customer adding the appropriate names of their ancestors in their proper position. Unfortunately, RA has not entered any additional information such as a tree link, family surnames, or locations.

GEDmatch is a bit different because your match list is not pre-generated, meaning there is no stored match list so no ability to create and save notes for matches. In the far right column, you can see the testing company and test version. He uploaded 4 different files to GEDmatch, including an Ancestry file. I went back to the main GEDmatch menu and selected Triangulation from the Tier 1 paid subscription options. Triangulation selects your closest matches and indeed, Christopher was among the triangulated groups with other people I recognize, providing immediate hints as to how we are related.

I painted each of those matches at DNAPainter. Those will be the matches I really need to concentrate on, because somehow these people DO all match each other too, and the common ancestor they share between themselves may be the clue I desperately need.

You know, the key to those people waiting just behind that brick wall of burned records and no last names. As the fall leaves change colors and people are turning more to inside activities, FamilyTree DNA began rolling out MyOrigins version 3 today.

The bad news is that everyone is trying to sign on at the same time, so the system is quite slow right now. I really like the process of prioritizing people who have signed in most recently. They are clearly the most interested in their results.

Not only are more people going to be receiving results soon, but additional features will be released over time:. Keep in mind that the two tests test some of the same locations, but not all. I have a 23andMe test I could upload as well. I may do that, simply to compare results, especially since 23andMe also shows my Native segments. My British Isles are much more specific now.

Much of my genealogy from the British Isles is somewhat ambiguous. I know positively that some lines are from there — just not exactly where. Trace amounts do not contribute to the totals. Furthermore, MyOrigins3 essentially matches my Native segments at 23andMe. I know this because I was fortunate enough to have had that sneak peek earlier this year when MyOrigins3 was in beta.

You can take a look at Dr. Population-based chromosome painting is coming for everyone after the MyOrigins3 rollout is complete. By clicking on the Shared Origins tab, you can see a list of your matches that have some of the same populations and locations. I can view the list of my Shared Origins matches, view our matching segments in the chromosome browser to see how we triangulate and share matches with others — hopefully identifying our common ancestor.

I had forgotten about this, but today, my friend mentioned that this is his favorite ad ever. Yes, an ad. I utilize DNA matches in various ways, some of which are a little unusual. In many cases, I mine autosomal DNA matches to search for people whose Y and mitochondrial DNA can provide descendants, including me and them, with additional insights into our common ancestors.

Y and mitochondrial DNA connects testers to their ancestors in ways that autosomal cannot. Y and mitochondrial lines each descend from only one ancestral line, rich in historical information, with the ability to reach far back in time along with the ability to connect testers recently.

Check it out here. Autosomal tests that you and family members can take will help you find other family members to test for specific Y and mitochondrial DNA lines. Both males and females, of course, can test green autosomal DNA which reveals a different type of connection to all of your ancestral lines, but with autosomal, you have to figure out which people match you on which lines.

You match against other Y DNA testers, hopefully finding surname links. SNPs group men into genetic lineages and STRs help with defining and refining the closest generations when matching to each other. Y DNA haplogroups, derived from SNPs, reveal the geographic part of the world where the lineage originated, such as Europe, the Americas, Asia and Africa, as well as a migration path across the continents based on where SNPs are and were historically found.

Ancient DNA samples are being added to the database. You can order or upgrade your Y DNA here. They may agree to have their kit upgraded too. To upgrade, sign in to your account , and click on your desired upgrade level under Y DNA testing. Many features such as the matches maps, haplogroup origins and ancestral origins pages are the same for Y DNA results as mitochondrial DNA results.

You can view mitochondrial articles here. Everyone has mitochondrial DNA and it is inherited matrilineally by you from your mother, from her mother, from her mother, etc. The FMS or full mitochondrial sequence DNA test tests the entire mitochondria that provides information about your direct matrilineal line. Those discoveries led us to her mother, Mary Mercy Kent, via genealogy records.

All we needed was to punch our way through that initial brick wall — and mitochondrial DNA was our battering ram. To upgrade, sign in to your account , and click on the desired upgrade level. I wrote several mitochondrial DNA articles and compiled them into a summary article for your convenience. They match you with descendants from all of your ancestral lines.

While the Y and mtDNA tests look back deeply in time as well as recently on one specific line, the autosomal tests are broad but not deep, spanning all ancestral lines, but limited to approximately 10 generations. Each autosomal vendor has unique benefits and focus as well as shortcomings. That means if we want to obtain that DNA information about our other family lines, we have to find people who descend appropriately from the ancestor in question and test that person.

After finding that person, I explain the situation, why the different kinds of tests are important, and offer a testing scholarship for the Y or mtDNA test at Family Tree DNA if they have not already taken that test. I also explain that they can transfer their autosomal DNA file for free too and will receive new matches.

Feel free to share. Each DNA testing company has different features, but you can use all of the companies to find people descended in the appropriate way from each ancestor. First, search the FamilyTreeDNA website for your goal surname among existing testers, and then the appropriate surname project to see if your line has already tested.

On the main page, here , scroll down to until you see the prompt, above, and enter the surname. Be sure to consider alternate spellings too. In this case, I see that there is a Ferverda surname project with 18 people, and scrolling on down, that 4 people with this specific surname have tested.

Note two things. If you click on their name, their email address is displayed. If your match has a tree, see if your ancestor or ancestral line is showing, then note whether they have taken a Y DNA test. At Genetic Affairs, selecting AutoTree generates trees where common ancestors of you and your matches, or your matches to each other, are displayed.

Your goal is to identify people descended from a common ancestor either directly paternally through all males for Y DNA or through all females to the current generation, which can be males, for mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondrial DNA lineages are a bit more challenging because the surname changes every generation and DNA projects are unlikely to help.

In some cases, a Family Finder test can refine a potential relationship between two people who match on either Y DNA or mitochondrial. Additionally, you may want to encourage, or gift, specific matches with an upgrade to see if they continue to match you at higher testing levels.

In this instance, you can see that the second match has taken a BIg Y and a Family Finder test, but the exact match genetic distance of 0 has not. If the first individual cannot provide much genealogy, having them take a Family Finder test would help at least rule out a relationship through second cousins and would give you at least some idea how far back in time your common ancestor may have lived. If they upgrade to the Big Y test, you may be able to differentiate your line from theirs, or confirm when and where a split occurred — or that there is no split.

For people who have taken both tests, Family Finder plus either Y or mitochondrial DNA, the Advanced Matching menu allows you to select combinations of tests and projects to query. You can see that I have 65 matches with a Theory of Family Relativity. Additionally, I can then search by surname. There are many search and filter combinations available. In this case, I have one SmartMatch, which means that someone by the name of Elizabeth Speaks is found in my matches tree.

I can go to that person in my tree, click on their profile, and see how many SmartMatches I have. Clicking on 13 SmartMatches allows me to view those matches and I can click through to the connected trees. Computers are far from perfect. Narrow the search as much as possible to make it easier to find the right individual, and then view the trees for descent in the proper manner.

The spreadsheet shows links to their trees, my notes and more. Clusters show you where to look. Without the cluster, I had only identified two people as descendants of this ancestral couple. I found several more candidates to evaluate and two mitochondrial candidates are found in this cluster. However, 23andMe attempts to create a tree of your closer relatives genetically. Also, please note, the locations in which they place people are estimates AND 23andMe does NOT take into account or provide for half-relationships.

I can tell by the surname of the male match, Ferverda, that he probably descends through a son, making him a Y DNA candidate. Both Cheryl and Laura are possible mitochondrial DNA candidates for Evaline Miller, based on this tree, depending of course on how they actually do descend.

Select your desired Ancestor, someone whose DNA you seek. Clearly, Y DNA candidates are very easy because you simply choose any male ancestor in the correct line with the surname and look for a male match with the appropriate surname. Thankfully, my cousin whom I match, at bottom left is descended through all females to the current generation, which can be male or female, so is a mitochondrial DNA candidate.

This includes both Ancestry and MyHeritage but also sites like Geneanet which is becoming increasingly popular, especially in Europe. I have not worked extensively with Geneanet yet but plan to take it for a test drive soon. Estes at WikiTree , one of my Estes ancestors.

If someone descends appropriately for either Y or mitochondrial DNA line, and has taken that test, their information is listed. You can click on the little green arrow icon to see how any DNA tested person descends from the ancestor whose profile you are accessing. I can click on anyone else whose DNA information is listed as well to see how they descend from John. If they descend from John through all females, then they obviously descend from his wife though all females too which means they are a mitochondrial DNA candidate for her.

Clicking on autosomal testers may reveal someone appropriately descended from the ancestor in question. Look for the Collaboration section where you can send them a private message that will be delivered by email from WikiTree. GEDmatch produces a list of your matches with common ancestors in their trees, allowing you to select the appropriate ancestor or lineage.

Gedmatch users who know their Y and mitochondrial haplogroup can enter that information in their profile and it will be reflected on the autosomal match list. In summary, each testing vendor has a different focus and unique tools that can be used to search for Y and mitochondrial DNA candidates. So, this article is going to be short and sweet, and I promise a more detailed article in a few days.

However, you need at least some of this info ASAP, so here it is in its rather unrefined raw state. I have the latest version of both Chrome and Edge browsers installed on a relatively new computer with lots of memory. The author recommends Firefox. Regardless, the script works, and truthfully, all I really care about is that these matches are preserved.

Until the script manages to work its way to the location in the file, which is increasing further down in the scrolling, where it discovers matches to be tagged, I must re-enter and re-enter the script to reinitiate the searching.

If half of these are identical by chance, or false positives, that means half are NOT false and you need to use your analytical skills to figure out which is which. Someone asked me earlier if I know anyone who will run the script or tag on behalf of someone else. Instructions for each company can be found here. If you know what you want, go right ahead and order. Of course, if you already know people appropriately descended, by all means, ask them and get a kit on order.

It makes it easier for them to say yes. If they agree, I add a Family Finder test too. I believe in striking while the iron is hot. You can sign up here. I certainly did. LiveScience reported this week that scientists have detected traces of an earlier human ancestor in Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA. That ancient ancestor existed ,, years ago, in Africa, leaving and intermixing with the Neanderthals then living in the Middle East or elsewhere outside of Africa, but before the move to Europe.

You can read the PLOS article, here. You never know what critical information is waiting just to be discovered. July Update: Please note that Ancestry issues a cease-and-desist order against Genetic Affairs, and this tool no longer works at Ancestry. The great news is that it still works at the other vendors, and you can ask Ancestry matches to transfer, which is free. AutoCluster groups your matches into clusters by who your matches match with each other, in addition to you.

WATO is a statistical probability technique developed by the DNAGeek that allows users to review possible positions in a tree for where they best fit. This is particularly useful for someone seeking unknown parents or other unknown relationships. At DNAPainter, you manually create the pedigree chart beginning with a common couple and creating branches to all of their descendants that you match.

The WATO tool then utilizes the combination of expected cMs at that position to create scores for each hypothesis position based on how closely or distantly you match other members of that extended family. The Shared cM Project, created and recently updated by Blaine Bettinger is used as the foundation for the expected centimorgan cM ranges of each relationship. DNAPainter has automated the possible relationships for any given matching cM amount, here. In the graphic above, you can see that the best hypothesis is 2 with a score of 1, followed by 4 and 5 with scores of 3 each.

Hypothesis 1 has a score of The benefit of this is that you can construct the actual pedigree as known based on genealogical research. In addition, Genetic Affairs automatically creates multiple hypotheses. You may need to utilize both approaches, meaning Genetic Affairs and DNAPainter, depending on who has tested, tree completeness at the vendors, and other factors.

Of course, Genetic Affairs can only use the trees someone has entered. You, on the other hand, can create a more complete tree at DNAPainter. First, sign on to your account at Genetic Affairs and select the AutoPedigree option for either Ancestry or Family Tree DNA which reconstructs trees and generates hypotheses automatically. The good news is that while Ancestry has more testers and matches, FamilyTreeDNA has many testers stretching back 20 years or so in the past who passed away before testing became available at Ancestry.

Often, their testers reach back a generation or two further. You can easily transfer Ancestry and other results to Family Tree DNA for free to obtain more matches — step-by-step instructions here. At Genetic Affairs, you should also consider including half-relations, especially if you are dealing with an unknown parent situation. Selecting half-relationships generates very large trees, so you might want to do the first run without, then a second run with half relationships selected.

I ran the program and opened the resulting email with the zip file. Saving that file automatically unzips for me, displaying the following 5 files and folders. I have a total of 26 clusters, only partially shown above. My first peach cluster and my 9 th blue cluster are huge. Why so small, you ask? Note also that this entire group of clusters blue through brown has members in more than one cluster, indicated by the grey cells that mean someone is a member of at least 2 clusters.

That tells me that I need to include the information from those clusters too in my analysis. Fortunately, Genetic Affairs realizes that and provides a combined AutoPedigree tool for that as well, which we will cover later in the article. Just note for now that the blue through brown clusters seem to be related to cluster At the top of each cluster AutoPedigree file, Genetic Affairs shows you the home couple of the descendant group shown in the matches and their corresponding trees.

When generating AutoPedigrees, Genetic Affairs truncates any branches that cannot result in a viable hypothesis for placing the tester in a viable location on the tree, so you may not see all matches. Their child is hyp child2, and their child is hypchild3.

The tester me, in this case cannot be the persons shown with red flags, called badges, based on how I match other people and other tree information such as birth and death dates. AutoPedigree makes no decisions, only shows you options, and calculated mathematically how probable each location is to be correct. These relationships are hypothetical showing you that IF these people existed, where the tester could appear on the tree.

The rankings for hypotheses 1, 2, and 7 all have red badges, meaning not possible, so they have a score of 0. Hypothesis 3 and 8 are possible, with a ranking of 16, respectively. Looking now at the next segment of the tree, you see that based on how I match my Deatsman and Hartman cousins, I can potentially fit in any portion of the tree with green badges in the red boxes or yellow badges.

You can also see where I actually fit in the tree. My own tree is ignored for hypothesis generation for the AutoPedigree hypothesis generation portion. As it turns out they did test, but provided no tree meaning that Genetic Affairs had no tree to work with.

Remember that I mentioned that my first cluster was huge. Many more matches mean that Genetic Affairs has more to work with. You can see the hypothetical line beneath my own line, with hypothesis , , , , The AutoTree portion of my tree is shown above, with my father and grandparents and my name in the green block.

In this case, there were some hypotheses ranked at 1, but they were incorrect, so be sure to evaluate all good green options, then yellow, in that order. After evaluating each of the AutoPedigrees generated for each cluster for which an AutoPedigree can be generated, click on the various cluster combined autopedigrees. You can see that for cluster 1, I have 7 separate AutoPedigrees based on common ancestors that were different.

I have 3 AutoPedigrees also for cluster 9, and 2 AutoPedigrees for 15, 21, and Moving to the combined clusters, the numbers of which are NOT correlated to the clusters themselves, Genetic Affairs has searched trees and combined ancestors in various clusters together when common ancestors were found. Remember that I asked you to note that the above blue through brown clusters seem to have commonality between the clusters based on grey cell matches who are found in multiple groups?

In fact, these people do share common ancestors, with a large combined AutoPedigree being generated from those multiple clusters. These larger combined pedigrees are very useful to tie the clusters together and understand how you match numerous people who descend from the same larger ancestral group, further back in time. You can manually flesh out the trees based on actual genealogy in WATO at DNAPainter, manually add matches from GEDmatch, 23andMe or MyHeritage or matches from vendors where your matches trees may not exist but you know how your match connects to you.

Selecting the 5 th generation level displays Jacob Lentz and Frederica Ruhle, the couple shown in the AutoCluster 21 and AutoPedigree examples earlier. The color-coding indicates the source of the ancestors in that position. You will also note that Genetic Affairs indicates how many matches I have that share this common ancestor along with which clusters to view for matches relevant to specific ancestors.

How cool is this?!! Have you painted your clusters or generated AutoTrees? Genetic Affairs provides complete instructions for AutoPedigree in this newsletter , along with a user manual here , and the Facebook Genetic Affairs User Group can be found here. You can read about DNAPainter, here. The goal of genetic genealogy is to utilize DNA matches to verify known ancestors and identify unknown ancestors.

A chromosome browser is a tool that allows testers to visualize and compare their DNA on each chromosome with that of their genetic matches. How to utilize and interpret that information becomes a little more tricky. I would suggest just reading through this article the first time, then following along with your own DNA results after you understand the basic landscape. Using your own results is the best way to learn anything. On my first 16 chromosomes, shown above, my 1C1R first cousin once removed, Cheryl, matches me where the chromosomes are painted blue.

My chromosome is represented by the grey background, and her matching portion by the blue overlay. You can select any one person, like Cheryl, from your match list to view on a chromosome browser to see where they match you on your chromosomes, or you can choose multiple matches, as shown below. I selected my 7 closest matches that are not my immediate family, meaning not my parents or children.

You see 7 images of my grey chromosome 1, for example, because each of the 7 people being compared to me are shown stacked below one another. Everyplace that Cheryl matches me is shown on the top image of each chromosome, and our matching segment is shown in blue.

Those are the essential hints we are looking for. The chromosome browser at MyHeritage looks quite similar. Each vendor that supports chromosome browsers FamilyTreeDNA, MyHeritage , 23andMe , and GedMatch provides their own implementation, of course, but the fundamentals of chromosome browsers, how they work and what they are telling us is universal.

In part, whether you utilize a chromosome browser or not depends on which of the following you seek:. Fortunately, we have an entire toolbox with a wide range of tools. Different tools are better suited for different tasks. People seeking unknown parents should read the article, Identifying Unknown Parents and Individuals Using DNA Matching because the methodology for identifying unknown parents is somewhat different than working with genealogy.

This article focuses on genealogy, although the foundation genetic principles are the same. Every person has 2 copies of each of their 22 chromosomes — one copy contributed by their mother and one copy contributed by their father.

A child receives exactly half of the autosomal DNA of each parent. On each chromosome, you receive some portion of the DNA that each parent received from their ancestors, but not exactly half of the DNA from each individual ancestor. I wrote about that here. Think of a genetic blender. Our job, using genetic genealogy, is to figure out which side of our family people who match us descend from — which leads us to our common ancestor s.

Of course, children and parents match on the full length of each chromosome. Therefore, if two people match you, at the same address on that chromosome, like Main Street, they could be:. Well then, how do we know which side of the family a match descends from, and how do we know if we share a common ancestor?

Identical by descent IBD means you inherited the piece of DNA from a common ancestor, inherited through the relevant parent. This chart, courtesy of statistician Philip Gammon, from the article Introducing the Match-Maker-Breaker Tool for Parental Phasing shows the percentage of time we expect matches of specific segment sizes to be valid, or identical by descent.

You receive a chromosome with a piece of DNA at every address from both parents. Of course, this means you have two pieces of DNA at each address. Therefore people will match you on either piece of DNA. However, both of those matches have the same address on their parallel streets as shown in the illustration, above. The problem is that you have no way to know which pieces you inherited from Mom and from Dad — at least not without additional information.

In order to match you, someone would either need to have an A or a T in one of their two inherited locations, because you have an A and a T, both. Your match inherited a specific sequence from their mother and father, just like you did. As you can see, even though they do match you because they have either an A or a T in all 10 locations — the As and Ts did not all descend from either their mother or father.

Their random inheritance of Ts and As just happens to match you. Your shared match could match you or your match through different ancestors — or could be identical by chance. Not enough parents have tested? This is where the chromosome browser enters the picture. In other words, at least three people who are confirmed to descend from your presumptive common ancestor, preferably through at least two different children, must match on a significant portion of the same segment.

Why is that? Because every segment has its own unique genealogical history. Each segment can and often does lead to different ancestors as you move further back in time. You can see that all three of them match me on at least some significant portion of the same segment of chromosome Triangulation confirms descent from a common ancestral source. In this case, I already know that these people are related on my paternal side. In a nutshell, matching on the same segment to people who are bucketed to the same parent is an automated method of triangulation.

Of course, not everyone has the luxury of having their parents tested, so testing other family members, finding common segments, and assigning people to their proper location in your tree facilitates confirmation of your genealogy and automating triangulation. The ONLY way you can determine if people match you on the same segment, and match each other, is having segment information available to you and utilizing a chromosome browser.

In the example above, the MyHeritage triangulation tool brackets matches that match you the background grey and who are all triangulated, meaning they all also match each other. In this case, the portion where all three people match me AND each other is bracketed. I wrote about triangulation at MyHeritage here. Assuming these are legitimate IBD matches, you may share another common line, known or unknown, with some or all of those matches. Been there, done that.

T-shirt was ugly. Utilizing a chromosome browser, autocluster software, and other tools, we can determine if those matches also match each other on a common segment, which means they triangulate and confirm common ancestral descent. Of course, those people could match each other due to a different ancestor, not necessarily the one I share with them nor the ancestors I think we match through. All three people match me, and they also match each other, shown in the overlap intersections.

Note that the intersection between the periwinkle Match 1 and teal Match 2 people, who match each other, is due to the wives of the children of two of my ancestors. In other words, their match to each other has absolutely nothing to do with their match to me. The intersection of the periwinkle Match 1 and mustard Match 3 matches is due to the Dodson line, but on a different segment than they both share with me.

People in a colored cluster all match you and each other — but not necessarily on the same segment, AND, they can match each other because they are related through different ancestors not related to your ancestor. The benefit of autocluster software is that this process is automated.

However, not all of your matches will qualify to be placed in clusters.

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In the DNA space, it was keep up, change, die or be sold. Of course, there was the small matter of being able to sell enough DNA kits to make enough money to stay in business at all. DNA processing equipment and a lab are expensive. Not just the equipment, but also the expertise. Their goal and focus was always medical genetics, but they recognized the potential in genealogists before anyone else, and we flocked to purchase tests.

FamilyTreeDNA did and still does offer all 3 kinds of tests. Their autosomal product is called Family Finder. MyHeritage entered the DNA testing space a few years after the others as the dark horse that few expected to be successful — but they fooled everyone.

They have acquired companies and partnered along the way which allowed them to add customers Promethease and tools such as AutoCluster by Genetic Affairs , boosting their number of users. Of course, MyHeritage also offers users a records research subscription service that you can try for free. One of the wonderful things that happened was that some vendors began to accept compatible raw DNA autosomal data transfer files from other vendors.

The transfers and matching are free, but there are either minimal unlock or subscription plans for advanced features. There are other testing companies, some with niche markets and others not so reputable. As I look back, the single biggest change is that genetic genealogy evolved from the pariah of genealogy where DNA discussion was banned from the now defunct Rootsweb lists and summarily deleted for the first few years after introduction.

Bottom line — fear and misunderstanding. Change is exceedingly difficult for humans, and DNA definitely moved the genealogy cheese. There was paper-trail traditional genealogy and then the genetic aspect. Together, each makes the other stronger and solves mysteries that neither can resolve alone.

Where should we be focused today and where is this industry going? What tools and articles popped up in to help further our genealogy addiction? I already published the most popular articles of , here. This industry started two decades ago with testing a few Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA markers, and we were utterly thrilled at the time. Both tests have advanced significantly and the prices have dropped like a stone.

Both play unique roles and provide information that cannot be obtained through autosomal DNA testing. Today, relative to Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA , the biggest challenge, ironically, is educating newer genealogists about their potential who have never heard about anything other than autosomal, often ethnicity, testing. I attempt to obtain the Y and mitochondrial DNA of every ancestral line. Y DNA tracks the Y chromosome for males via the patrilineal surname line, providing matching and historical migration information.

We started 20 years ago testing 10 STR markers. I would encourage anyone who can to order or upgrade to the Big Y test which provides critical lineage information in addition to and beyond traditional STR testing. These SNPs will help define new branches and refine existing ones in the future. The tree is constructed based on high coverage chromosome Y sequences from: — More than 52, Big Y results — Almost 4, NGS results from present-day anonymous men that participated in academic studies.

Today, the full sequence mitochondrial DNA test is standard, testing the entire 16, locations of the mitochondria. New articles in included the introduction of The Million Mito Project. The Million Mito Project is rewriting the haplotree of womankind.

The current haplotree has expanded substantially since the first handful of haplogroups thanks to thousands upon thousands of testers, but there is so much more information that can be extracted today. The search provides you with a list of projects available for a specific surname along with how many customers with that surname have tested.

Looking at the individual Y DNA projects will show the earliest known ancestor of the surname line. The world of autosomal DNA turns on the centimorgan cM measure. What is a centimorgan, exactly? Fortunately, new tools and techniques make using cMs much easier. The Shared cM Project was updated this year, and the results incorporated into a wonderfully easy tool used to determine potential relationships at DNAPainter based on the number of shared centiMorgans.

Match quality and potential relationships are determined by the number of shared cMs, and the chromosome browser is the best tool to use for those comparisons. Chromosome browsers allow testers to view their matching cMs of DNA with other testers positioned on their own chromosomes.

The next logical step after learning to use a chromosome browser is triangulation. In autosomal DNA, triangulation occurs when:. The same two cousins are shown above, with triangulated segments bracketed at MyHeritage. Why is Ancestry missing from this list of triangulation articles? Ancestry does not offer a chromosome browser or segment information. Of course, I would encourage you to stay with mainstream products being used by a significant number of community power users. Third-party tools are making a huge difference in the world of genetic genealogy.

I have not tried a newer tool, YourDNAFamily , that focuses only on 23andMe results although the creator has been a member of the genetic genealogy community for a long time. DNAPainter takes the next step, providing a repository for all of your painted segments. In other words, DNAPainter is both a solution and a methodology for mass triangulation across all of your chromosomes. All you need to do is to link your known matches to your tree in the proper place at FamilyTreeDNA , then they do the rest by using those DNA matches to indicate which of the rest of your matches are maternal and paternal.

Instructions, here. You can then export the file and use it at DNAPainter to paint all of those matches on the correct maternal or paternal chromosomes. Of course, utilizing DNA matching plus finding common ancestors in trees is one of the primary purposes of genetic genealogy — right?

Genetic Affairs take this a step further. Of course, that common ancestor might not be relevant to your genealogy, but it just might be too! This tree does not include me, but two of my matches descend from a common ancestor and that common ancestor between them might be a clue as to why I match both of them.

Ethnicity is always popular. I understand. I really do. Hopefully, ethnicity will pique their curiosity and encourage engagement. The future for ethnicity, I believe, will be held in integrated tools that allow us to use ethnicity results for genealogy, including being able to paint our ethnicity on our chromosomes as well as perform segment matching by ethnicity.

That information would inform me as to which match is paternal and which is maternal. Not only that, this feature would help immensely tracking ancestors back in time and identifying their origins. Will we ever get there? With the imposed isolation of , conferences quickly moved to an online presence. The genealogy community has all pulled together to make this work.

A few days ago, I asked MyHeritage for a list of their LIVE sessions in and was shocked to learn that there were more than 90 in English, all free, and you can watch them anytime. By the way, every single one of the speakers is a volunteer, so say a big thank you to the speakers who make this possible, and to MyHeritage for the resources to make this free for everyone.

Geoff Rasmussen put together the list of their top webinars for , and I was pleased to see that I made the top 10! Also, 9 and You can always watch new webinars for free for a few days, and you can subscribe to watch all webinars, here. Thank you to Penny Walters for creating this lovely graphic. There are literally hundreds of speakers providing sessions in many languages for viewers around the world.

All hands on deck. All I can say is that very high on the priority list should be someone who IS a genealogist and who understands how DNA applies to genealogy. In the future, as genealogy and DNA testing becomes ever more popular and even more of a commodity, company sales and acquisitions will become more commonplace. In a move that may or may not be related to an attempt to cut costs, Ancestry removed 6 and 7 cM matches from their users, freeing up processing resources, hardware, and storage requirements and thereby reducing costs.

Since that time, 23andMe has increasingly pushed consumers to pay to retest on their V5 chip. Ancestry also added a health product. The various companies need some product diversity to survive downturns. Both Ancestry and MyHeritage provide subscription services for genealogy records.

FamilyTreeDNA is part of a larger company, GenebyGene whose genetics labs do processing for other companies and medical facilities. Research bleeds over into the consumer marketplace where products are improved and new features created allowing us to better track and understand our ancestors through their DNA that we and our family members inherit. Here are a few of the research articles I published in You might notice a theme here — ancient DNA. What we can learn now due to new processing techniques is absolutely amazing.

Of course, in addition to this research, the Million Mito Project team is hard at work rewriting the tree of womankind. GEDmatch, founded in by genealogists for genealogists was 5 years old, but was sold in December to Verogen.

That would be very bizarre, because every brick wall that falls reveals two more ancestors that need to be researched and spurs a frantic flurry of midnight searching. Of course, if Ancestry provided a chromosome browser, it would cost development money for no additional revenue and their customer service reps would have to be able to support it. As companies increase in value, the number of private individuals who could afford to purchase the company decreases quickly, leaving private corporations as the only potential buyers, or becoming publicly held.

What we desperately need, and I predict will happen one way or another is a marriage of individual tools and functions that exist separately today, with a dash of innovation. We need tools that will move beyond confirming existing ancestors — and will be able to identify ancestors through our DNA — out beyond each and every brick wall. In fact, this is exactly what happened with mitochondrial DNA — twice now. A match and a great deal of digging by one extremely persistent cousin resulting in identifying potential parents for a brick-wall ancestor.

Autosomal DNA then confirmed that my DNA matched with 59 other individuals who descend from that couple through multiple children. DNA has the potential to reveal those names! We have most of the individual technology pieces today to get this done. Of course, the combined technological solution would require significant computing resources and processing power — just at the same time that vendors are desperately trying to pare costs to a minimum.

Each triangulated segment has an individual history that will lead not just to known ancestors, but to their unknown ancestors as well. We have reached critical mass in terms of how many people have tested — and more success would encourage more and more people to test. There is a genetic path over every single brick wall in our genealogy. People give up. And the process is painful, even when it does succeed.

This process has also been made increasingly difficult when some vendors block tools that help genealogists by downloading match and ancestral tree information. Obviously, the issue here is not a lack of funds. Including Y and mitochondrial DNA resources in our genetic toolbox not only confirms accuracy but also provides additional hints and clues. These are not competing products.

I would be glad to pay for a subscription for top-of-the-line innovation and tools. In what other industry do consumers expect to pay for an item once and receive constant life-long innovations and upgrades? I want vendors to be profitable so that they can invest in new tools that leverage the power of computing for genealogists to solve currently unsolvable problems.

If you compare the cost of books, library visits, courthouse trips, and other research endeavors that often produce exactly nothing, these types of genetic tools would be both a godsend and an incredible value. Among the current players, that leaves two DNA testing companies and a few top-notch third parties as candidates — although — as the past has proven, the future is uncertain, fluid, and everchanging.

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

We all know that was a year like no other, right? So, what were we reading this year as we spent more time at home? One article is now obsolete. Not only is ethnicity a perennially favorite, but all four major vendors introduced something new this year. Clusters are defined by the locations of ancestors of other people within that genetic cluster.

Since this article was published in October, 23andMe has indeed updated the V3 and V4 kits with new ethnicity updates. To date, 23andMe has restored previous matches and also restored some but not all of the search functionality that they had removed. Consumer feedback works — so thanks to everyone who provided feedback to 23andMe. I created a Native American reference and resource page too, which you can find here. Something to look forward to. I always look forward to the end of January because there will be lots of matches from holiday gifts being posted.

Feel free to forward any of these articles to your new matches. Need to figure out the difference between full and half-siblings? Then Full or Half Siblings? Trying to discern other relationships? Not only is this just plain fun, but I snuck in a little education too. This drawing depicts Viking ships besieging Paris in the year Vikings voyaged into Russia and as far as the Mediterranean. Another just plain fun idea is the Migration Pedigree Chart. This will also help you figure out the estimated percentages of ethnicity you might reasonably expect.

Another idea for helping kids learn at home and they might accidentally learn about figuring percentages in the process. ThruLines is the Ancestry tool that assists DNA testers with trees connect the dots to common ancestors with their matches. There are ways to optimize your tree to improve your connections, both in terms of accuracy and the number of Thrulines that form.

I keep meaning to…. Of course, as expected, just like any other organism, mutations have occurred since then. Goodness knows, we are all tired of Covid and the resulting safety protocols. Keep on keeping on. We need you on the other side.

Stay home, mask up when you must leave, stay away from other people outside your family that you live with, wash your hands, and get vaccinated as soon as you can. And until we can all see each other in person again, hopefully, sooner than later, keep on doing genealogy. Free articles like these are your guide. What is triangulation, why it is important for genealogy, and how does one go about triangulating? More importantly, why do genealogists care? In a nutshell, triangulation allows you to discover or confirm your ancestors or ancestral lines when:.

This article explains chromosome matching and triangulation step-by-step to help you sort through your matches. A chromosome browser is essential to genetic genealogy and specifically, to triangulation, allowing you to visualize your DNA matches on your chromosomes. This article starts at the beginning with what a chromosome browser looks like and explains each step along the way. Genetic Affairs has numerous tools that facilitate and assist with different aspects of triangulation including their AutoClusters, AutoTree, AutoPedigree and AutoSegment features.

Each of the major vendors, except Ancestry, provides a chromosome browser along with some type of triangulation tool. Additionally, third parties who do not perform DNA testing offer great supplemental tools. GEDmatch and DNAPainter both provide triangulation tools, allowing you to take advantage of matches from multiple vendors. MyHeritage is the only vendor to incorporate a triangulation tool with shared matches and AutoClusters into their solution.

Of course, MyHeritage also provides traditional genealogical research records that they combine with DNA matches and trees in their Theories of Family Relativity feature , showing potential tree connections between you and your matches to common ancestors. You will find a number of people who have tested at Ancestry and other vendors, then transferred to GEDmatch to use their chromosome browser and other tools to obtain additional matches.

GEDmatch is the only vendor who triangulates all of your matches at one time — providing a comprehensive report. I utilize DNAPainter as a central location to house all of my identified segments from all vendors. The following vendors do NOT support uploads, but you can download your DNA file from these vendors and upload to the vendors above:.

DNA Tidbit Challenge: Define goals for answering genealogy questions, allowing you to focus your efforts. For a short article about the difference between Y, mitochondrial, and autosomal DNA, please click here. For more seasoned genealogists, we may have taken all the tests and answered many questions already, but still, our research needs to be guided by goals.

I regularly check my matches. I still think I may have had a half-sibling that is yet to be located. My broad goals have changed a bit over time. Unfortunately, in this case, no one descends correctly for mitochondrial DNA , meaning through all females to the current generation which can be male. In the first couple of close generations, using autosomal DNA, we can confirm ancestral lines and parentage. We can confirm our parents and our grandparents, but further back in that, we have to use a combination of our tree and other tools to confirm our paper genealogy.

In closer generations, autosomal DNA might help, but not beyond the first couple of generations. Second cousins always match autosomally, but beyond that, not so much. Using Y DNA , if we can find a suitable candidate, I can confirm that my Estes ancestor actually does descend through the Estes line indicated by my paper trail.

If they do test and share their match information with me, and others from that same line have tested, I can see their earliest known ancestors on their Y DNA match page. If someone from that line has already tested and has joined a surname project, you can see their results on the public project page if they have authorized public project display. This is also one way of determining whether or not your line has already tested, especially if you have no Y DNA matches to the expected surname and ancestor.

To see if projects exist for your surnames, you can click here and scroll down to the search box, below. Confirmation of a specific ancestor requires two things without Y DNA testing :. Step-by-step transfer instructions are found here. You can read all about how to use DNAPainter, here. I identify every match that I can and paint those segments to that ancestor. The fact that several people descend from Henry and Nancy, through multiple children, confirms this segment back to that couple.

What about that purple person? However, I know for sure at least part of that matching segment, the burgundy portion, is through Henry Bolton and Nancy Mann, or their ancestors. In the above example, I mentioned that each segment goes back to a couple. Clearly, in the next generation, that segment either comes from either the father or mother, or parts from both perhaps. In this case, that oldest burgundy segment originated with either Henry Bolton or Nancy Mann.

Does that make sense? Just keep that in mind. I need to see if any of my other matches have Babb as a common name. Now, I can search for Babb at any of the testing vendors to see what, if anything, I can discover. I suggest that you look at each ancestor, and in particular each end-of-line ancestor thinking about where you can focus to obtain answers and reveal new ancestors. Covid is already spiking and many families have already canceled holiday plans.

This situation, combined with the seasonal darkness and cold will make things even more difficult for people in the northern hemisphere. DNA Tidbits will be enjoyable to do together because we can share our findings. They will range from introductory to a little more complex so everyone can play, and learn.

View your 5 highest matches that triangulate. Triangulation, of course, means that three people — you, a match plus someone else not a direct relative meaning not parents or siblings all match each other on the same segment. Can you tell how the person or people you triangulate with match? Through which ancestral line? You might be able to discern this by viewing each triangulated match to see:. Have you painted those segments at DNAPainter?

Did you find something unexpected? This is probably more detailed than future Tidbits because Tidbits are designed to be quick for you and me, both. Family Tree DNA — My top 5 triangulated autosomal matches are people assigned to one parent or the other. Their note icon is grey meaning nothing recorded there. Unfortunately, Christopher has uploaded no tree.

He is, however, assigned to my paternal side with a sizeable piece of matching DNA across multiple segments. Looking at who we match in common, I can discern immediately that we connect through my great-grandparents, Lazarus Estes and Elizabeth Vannoy because we match people who descend from both of those lines upstream of that couple.

Unfortunately, none of my top 5 triangulated matches had trees that were productive in terms of identifying a common ancestor. I reviewed the DNA match to see if Jason and I share triangulated segments with other people, indicated by the purple icon on my shared matches with Jason. My grandparents were not related to each other. This indicates that Jason and I are related through two different lines that lived in the same area and intermarried.

I need to send Jason a message. Keep in mind that this tree is not uploaded, but genetically created by 23andMe with the customer adding the appropriate names of their ancestors in their proper position. Unfortunately, RA has not entered any additional information such as a tree link, family surnames, or locations. GEDmatch is a bit different because your match list is not pre-generated, meaning there is no stored match list so no ability to create and save notes for matches.

In the far right column, you can see the testing company and test version. He uploaded 4 different files to GEDmatch, including an Ancestry file. I went back to the main GEDmatch menu and selected Triangulation from the Tier 1 paid subscription options. Triangulation selects your closest matches and indeed, Christopher was among the triangulated groups with other people I recognize, providing immediate hints as to how we are related.

I painted each of those matches at DNAPainter. Those will be the matches I really need to concentrate on, because somehow these people DO all match each other too, and the common ancestor they share between themselves may be the clue I desperately need. You know, the key to those people waiting just behind that brick wall of burned records and no last names.

As the fall leaves change colors and people are turning more to inside activities, FamilyTree DNA began rolling out MyOrigins version 3 today. The bad news is that everyone is trying to sign on at the same time, so the system is quite slow right now. I really like the process of prioritizing people who have signed in most recently. They are clearly the most interested in their results. Not only are more people going to be receiving results soon, but additional features will be released over time:.

Keep in mind that the two tests test some of the same locations, but not all. I have a 23andMe test I could upload as well. I may do that, simply to compare results, especially since 23andMe also shows my Native segments.

My British Isles are much more specific now. Much of my genealogy from the British Isles is somewhat ambiguous. I know positively that some lines are from there — just not exactly where. Trace amounts do not contribute to the totals. Furthermore, MyOrigins3 essentially matches my Native segments at 23andMe.

I know this because I was fortunate enough to have had that sneak peek earlier this year when MyOrigins3 was in beta. You can take a look at Dr. Population-based chromosome painting is coming for everyone after the MyOrigins3 rollout is complete. By clicking on the Shared Origins tab, you can see a list of your matches that have some of the same populations and locations. I can view the list of my Shared Origins matches, view our matching segments in the chromosome browser to see how we triangulate and share matches with others — hopefully identifying our common ancestor.

I had forgotten about this, but today, my friend mentioned that this is his favorite ad ever. Yes, an ad. I utilize DNA matches in various ways, some of which are a little unusual. In many cases, I mine autosomal DNA matches to search for people whose Y and mitochondrial DNA can provide descendants, including me and them, with additional insights into our common ancestors.

Y and mitochondrial DNA connects testers to their ancestors in ways that autosomal cannot. Y and mitochondrial lines each descend from only one ancestral line, rich in historical information, with the ability to reach far back in time along with the ability to connect testers recently. Check it out here. Autosomal tests that you and family members can take will help you find other family members to test for specific Y and mitochondrial DNA lines.

Both males and females, of course, can test green autosomal DNA which reveals a different type of connection to all of your ancestral lines, but with autosomal, you have to figure out which people match you on which lines. You match against other Y DNA testers, hopefully finding surname links. SNPs group men into genetic lineages and STRs help with defining and refining the closest generations when matching to each other. Y DNA haplogroups, derived from SNPs, reveal the geographic part of the world where the lineage originated, such as Europe, the Americas, Asia and Africa, as well as a migration path across the continents based on where SNPs are and were historically found.

Ancient DNA samples are being added to the database. You can order or upgrade your Y DNA here. They may agree to have their kit upgraded too. To upgrade, sign in to your account , and click on your desired upgrade level under Y DNA testing. Many features such as the matches maps, haplogroup origins and ancestral origins pages are the same for Y DNA results as mitochondrial DNA results. You can view mitochondrial articles here.

Everyone has mitochondrial DNA and it is inherited matrilineally by you from your mother, from her mother, from her mother, etc. The FMS or full mitochondrial sequence DNA test tests the entire mitochondria that provides information about your direct matrilineal line. Those discoveries led us to her mother, Mary Mercy Kent, via genealogy records.

All we needed was to punch our way through that initial brick wall — and mitochondrial DNA was our battering ram. To upgrade, sign in to your account , and click on the desired upgrade level. I wrote several mitochondrial DNA articles and compiled them into a summary article for your convenience. They match you with descendants from all of your ancestral lines. While the Y and mtDNA tests look back deeply in time as well as recently on one specific line, the autosomal tests are broad but not deep, spanning all ancestral lines, but limited to approximately 10 generations.

Each autosomal vendor has unique benefits and focus as well as shortcomings. That means if we want to obtain that DNA information about our other family lines, we have to find people who descend appropriately from the ancestor in question and test that person. After finding that person, I explain the situation, why the different kinds of tests are important, and offer a testing scholarship for the Y or mtDNA test at Family Tree DNA if they have not already taken that test. I also explain that they can transfer their autosomal DNA file for free too and will receive new matches.

Feel free to share. Each DNA testing company has different features, but you can use all of the companies to find people descended in the appropriate way from each ancestor. First, search the FamilyTreeDNA website for your goal surname among existing testers, and then the appropriate surname project to see if your line has already tested.

On the main page, here , scroll down to until you see the prompt, above, and enter the surname. Be sure to consider alternate spellings too. In this case, I see that there is a Ferverda surname project with 18 people, and scrolling on down, that 4 people with this specific surname have tested. Note two things. If you click on their name, their email address is displayed. If your match has a tree, see if your ancestor or ancestral line is showing, then note whether they have taken a Y DNA test.

At Genetic Affairs, selecting AutoTree generates trees where common ancestors of you and your matches, or your matches to each other, are displayed. Your goal is to identify people descended from a common ancestor either directly paternally through all males for Y DNA or through all females to the current generation, which can be males, for mitochondrial DNA.

Mitochondrial DNA lineages are a bit more challenging because the surname changes every generation and DNA projects are unlikely to help. In some cases, a Family Finder test can refine a potential relationship between two people who match on either Y DNA or mitochondrial.

Additionally, you may want to encourage, or gift, specific matches with an upgrade to see if they continue to match you at higher testing levels. In this instance, you can see that the second match has taken a BIg Y and a Family Finder test, but the exact match genetic distance of 0 has not. If the first individual cannot provide much genealogy, having them take a Family Finder test would help at least rule out a relationship through second cousins and would give you at least some idea how far back in time your common ancestor may have lived.

If they upgrade to the Big Y test, you may be able to differentiate your line from theirs, or confirm when and where a split occurred — or that there is no split. For people who have taken both tests, Family Finder plus either Y or mitochondrial DNA, the Advanced Matching menu allows you to select combinations of tests and projects to query. You can see that I have 65 matches with a Theory of Family Relativity. Additionally, I can then search by surname.

There are many search and filter combinations available. In this case, I have one SmartMatch, which means that someone by the name of Elizabeth Speaks is found in my matches tree. I can go to that person in my tree, click on their profile, and see how many SmartMatches I have. Clicking on 13 SmartMatches allows me to view those matches and I can click through to the connected trees. Computers are far from perfect. Narrow the search as much as possible to make it easier to find the right individual, and then view the trees for descent in the proper manner.

The spreadsheet shows links to their trees, my notes and more. Clusters show you where to look. Without the cluster, I had only identified two people as descendants of this ancestral couple. I found several more candidates to evaluate and two mitochondrial candidates are found in this cluster. However, 23andMe attempts to create a tree of your closer relatives genetically. Also, please note, the locations in which they place people are estimates AND 23andMe does NOT take into account or provide for half-relationships.

I can tell by the surname of the male match, Ferverda, that he probably descends through a son, making him a Y DNA candidate. Both Cheryl and Laura are possible mitochondrial DNA candidates for Evaline Miller, based on this tree, depending of course on how they actually do descend. Select your desired Ancestor, someone whose DNA you seek. Clearly, Y DNA candidates are very easy because you simply choose any male ancestor in the correct line with the surname and look for a male match with the appropriate surname.

Thankfully, my cousin whom I match, at bottom left is descended through all females to the current generation, which can be male or female, so is a mitochondrial DNA candidate. This includes both Ancestry and MyHeritage but also sites like Geneanet which is becoming increasingly popular, especially in Europe.

I have not worked extensively with Geneanet yet but plan to take it for a test drive soon. Estes at WikiTree , one of my Estes ancestors. If someone descends appropriately for either Y or mitochondrial DNA line, and has taken that test, their information is listed. You can click on the little green arrow icon to see how any DNA tested person descends from the ancestor whose profile you are accessing. I can click on anyone else whose DNA information is listed as well to see how they descend from John.

If they descend from John through all females, then they obviously descend from his wife though all females too which means they are a mitochondrial DNA candidate for her. Clicking on autosomal testers may reveal someone appropriately descended from the ancestor in question.

Look for the Collaboration section where you can send them a private message that will be delivered by email from WikiTree. GEDmatch produces a list of your matches with common ancestors in their trees, allowing you to select the appropriate ancestor or lineage. Gedmatch users who know their Y and mitochondrial haplogroup can enter that information in their profile and it will be reflected on the autosomal match list.

In summary, each testing vendor has a different focus and unique tools that can be used to search for Y and mitochondrial DNA candidates. So, this article is going to be short and sweet, and I promise a more detailed article in a few days. However, you need at least some of this info ASAP, so here it is in its rather unrefined raw state. I have the latest version of both Chrome and Edge browsers installed on a relatively new computer with lots of memory. The author recommends Firefox.

Regardless, the script works, and truthfully, all I really care about is that these matches are preserved. Until the script manages to work its way to the location in the file, which is increasing further down in the scrolling, where it discovers matches to be tagged, I must re-enter and re-enter the script to reinitiate the searching. If half of these are identical by chance, or false positives, that means half are NOT false and you need to use your analytical skills to figure out which is which.

Someone asked me earlier if I know anyone who will run the script or tag on behalf of someone else. Instructions for each company can be found here. If you know what you want, go right ahead and order. Of course, if you already know people appropriately descended, by all means, ask them and get a kit on order.

It makes it easier for them to say yes. If they agree, I add a Family Finder test too. I believe in striking while the iron is hot. You can sign up here. I certainly did. But he came back and raised it a level. For a while, it appeared Bettinger was a sure bet to break it. After winning Thursday, he cleared on his first attempt and on his second.

Bettinger nearly cleared on his final attempt--the bar teetered on the standard for several seconds before falling. About Us. Brand Publishing. Times Events. Times News Platforms. Times Store. Second Opinion. Facebook Twitter Show more sharing options Share Close extra sharing options.

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