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Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Asked 2 years ago. Active 2 years ago. Viewed times. On most of the sites I've been to they simply say 1 and 2 are obvious or inherent, while on the post I linked above it states that only 3 must be shown when we Assume that all variables are integrable and that the filtration we are working with is the natural filtration My question is if this is an assumption that can be reasonably made here and if it is then how these things automatically lead to 1 and 2 being definite.
Add a comment. Active Oldest Votes. Rhys Steele Rhys Steele Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown. Featured on Meta. In a casino, the expected value is negative, due to the house's edge.
Additionally, as the likelihood of a string of consecutive losses occurs more often than common intuition suggests, martingale strategies can bankrupt a gambler quickly. The fundamental reason why all martingale-type betting systems fail is that no amount of information about the results of past bets can be used to predict the results of a future bet with accuracy better than chance.
In mathematical terminology, this corresponds to the assumption that the win-loss outcomes of each bet are independent and identically distributed random variables , an assumption which is valid in many realistic situations. It follows from this assumption that the expected value of a series of bets is equal to the sum, over all bets that could potentially occur in the series, of the expected value of a potential bet times the probability that the player will make that bet.
In most casino games, the expected value of any individual bet is negative, so the sum of many negative numbers will also always be negative. The martingale strategy fails even with unbounded stopping time, as long as there is a limit on earnings or on the bets which is also true in practice. The impossibility of winning over the long run, given a limit of the size of bets or a limit in the size of one's bankroll or line of credit, is proven by the optional stopping theorem. However, without these limits, the martingale betting strategy is certain to make money for the gambler because the chance of at least one coin flip coming up heads approaches one as the number of coin flips approaches infinity.
Let one round be defined as a sequence of consecutive losses followed by either a win, or bankruptcy of the gambler. After a win, the gambler "resets" and is considered to have started a new round. A continuous sequence of martingale bets can thus be partitioned into a sequence of independent rounds. Following is an analysis of the expected value of one round.
Let q be the probability of losing e. Let B be the amount of the initial bet. Let n be the finite number of bets the gambler can afford to lose. The probability that the gambler will lose all n bets is q n. When all bets lose, the total loss is. In all other cases, the gambler wins the initial bet B. Thus, the expected profit per round is. Thus, for all games where a gambler is more likely to lose than to win any given bet, that gambler is expected to lose money, on average, each round.
Increasing the size of wager for each round per the martingale system only serves to increase the average loss. Suppose a gambler has a 63 unit gambling bankroll. The gambler might bet 1 unit on the first spin. On each loss, the bet is doubled. Thus, taking k as the number of preceding consecutive losses, the player will always bet 2 k units.
With a win on any given spin, the gambler will net 1 unit over the total amount wagered to that point. Once this win is achieved, the gambler restarts the system with a 1 unit bet. With losses on all of the first six spins, the gambler loses a total of 63 units. This exhausts the bankroll and the martingale cannot be continued. Thus, the total expected value for each application of the betting system is 0. In a unique circumstance, this strategy can make sense. Suppose the gambler possesses exactly 63 units but desperately needs a total of Eventually he either goes bust or reaches his target.
This strategy gives him a probability of The previous analysis calculates expected value , but we can ask another question: what is the chance that one can play a casino game using the martingale strategy, and avoid the losing streak long enough to double one's bankroll. Many gamblers believe that the chances of losing 6 in a row are remote, and that with a patient adherence to the strategy they will slowly increase their bankroll.