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Front Matter Pages i-xi. Front Matter Pages Pages An Inordinate Fondness for Beetles. Phylogenetics and Systematics of Animal Life. Nursyafiqah Shazali, J. Mohd-Azlan, Andrew Alek Tuen. An International Conference" will be the premier forum for the presentation of new advances and research results in the fields of studies on Alfred Russel Wallace and other natural historians, past and present, as well as contemporary research on South-east Asian and Australasian biological diversity.
Its deep shades are sacred to the devotee of Science. Yet they afford ample food for the mind of the believer, not less than to that of the philosopher. And we would add, to the superstitious native, to whom the jungles teem with ghosts and spirits. Birds are plentiful there are some species , some of beautiful plumage, but few are songsters.
Insect life is very largely represented, and includes many varieties of the curious stick and leaf insects,  hardly to be distinguished from the twigs and leaves they mimic. Also the noisy and never tiring cicadas, whose evening concerts are almost deafening, and frogs and grasshoppers who help to swell the din. There are many varieties of beautiful butterflies, but these are to be found more in the open clearings. Though there are no dangerous animals, there are many pests, the worst being the leeches, of which there are three kinds, two that lurk in the grass and bushes, the other being aquatic—the horse-leech.
Mosquitoes, stinging flies, and ants are common, and the scorpion and centipede are there as well. Snakes, though numerous, are rarely seen, for they swiftly and silently retire on the approach of man, and one variety only, the hamadryad, the great cobra or snake-eating snake, is said to be aggressive. The varieties of land and water snakes are many, there being some different species. Natives often fall victims to snake bites.
Pythons attain a length of over twenty feet;  they seldom attack man, though instances have been known of people having been killed by these reptiles, and the following story, taken from the Sarawak Gazette , will show how dangerous they can be. At a little village a man and his small son were asleep together.
In the middle of the night the child shrieked out that he was being taken by a crocodile, and the father, to his horror, found that a snake had closed its jaws on the boy's head. With his hands he prised the reptile's jaws open and released his son; but in his turn he had to be rescued by some neighbours, for the python had wound itself around his body.
Neither was much hurt. There are two kinds of diminutive bears, the tree-leopard, wild cat, the scaly ant-eater, the porcupine, the otter, the lemur, and other small animals, including the flying fox, flying squirrel, flying lizard, flying frog, a peculiar kind of rat with a tail which bears a close resemblance to a feather,  and huge toads nine inches in height.
Of the valuable products of the jungle it will be sufficient to note here that gutta, camphor, cutch, and dammar-producing trees abound; also creepers from which rubber is extracted; and rattans of various kinds. There are trees from the nuts of which excellent oil is expressed; and many kinds of useful woods, some exceeding hard and durable, and some ornamental.
Man's greatest enemy is the crocodile, and this voracious saurian becomes a dangerous foe when, driven perhaps by scarcity of other food, it has once preyed upon man, for, like 10 the tiger, it then becomes a man-hunter and man-eater. It will lurk about landing and bathing-places for prey; will snatch a man bodily from a boat; and one has been known to seize a child out of its mother's arms while she was bathing it.
The Sarawak Gazette records numerous deaths due to crocodiles, though by no means all that happen, and many thrilling adventures with these reptiles. Two we will give as interesting instances of devotion and presence of mind. A little Malay boy, just able to toddle, was larking in the mud at low water when he was seized by a crocodile, which was making for the water with its screaming little victim in its jaws, when the child's sister, a girl of twelve, and his brother of eight, rushed to his assistance.
The boy hopelessly tried to stop the crocodile by clinging to one of its fore-paws, but the girl jumped upon the brute's back, and gradually working her way to its eyes which were then just above water, succeeded in gouging out one with her fingers. This caused the crocodile promptly to drop its prey, but only just in time, as it was on the point of gliding into deep water.
By the girl's vigorous intervention it not only lost its prey but also its life, for two men coming up hacked the brute to pieces. The little heroine had remembered the story of how her grandfather had formerly saved his life in the same way. To scoop out the eyes is the only chance of escape for one taken, and it must be done promptly. The little boy was scarcely hurt. The girl's courageous deed duly received a graceful recognition from the Ranee. Another girl, a Dayak girl this time, rescued her mother, who was dragged out of a boat, in which they were together, by a large crocodile.
She threw herself upon the monster, and by thrusting her fingers into its eyes compelled the brute, after a short but sharp struggle, to release its prey. Death caused by a crocodile is one of the most horrible of deaths, and it is often a protracted one, as the victim is borne along above water for some distance, then taken down, bashed against some sunken log, and brought up again.
So did once a young Malay woman in the Simanggang Court on being convicted of a serious crime. That evening, whilst she was bathing, a smothered cry, that she had barely time to utter, announced that her prayer had been heard.
There are several kinds of crocodiles, broad and long snouted. In the Perak Museum is a specimen nearly twenty-five feet in length, but the longest that has been caught in Sarawak, and authentically measured, was nineteen feet. The Government gives a reward for killing these pests, which is paid upon some to annually brought to the police station at Kuching. More are killed in the various districts of which no record is kept. Saw-fish are also common, and with their long spiny saws are dangerous creatures.
A fisherman was killed by one of these at the mouth of the Sadong; he was in a small canoe when the fish, which he had cut at with his knife, struck him a blow on his neck with its saw, from which he died almost immediately. Excellent fish are abundant, such as mackerel and herring, considerably larger than the English varieties, pomfret, barbel, soles, mullets, etc.
The dugong Malay duyong , the sea-cow, is rare in Sarawak, but common in North Borneo, as is also the whale; in Sarawak the latter are occasionally stranded on the beach. Turtles abound; these are preserved for the sake of their eggs, which are considered a great delicacy. We will now consider the races that occupy Sarawak territory; and the following brief ethnological notes with regard to those of Indonesian stock will be all that is necessary for the purposes of this book; to attempt anything like an accurate classification of the many tribes and sub-tribes which differentiate the heterogeneous population of the country would be beyond its scope, even were it possible to trace the divergence of the cognate tribes from the original stock, and of the sub-tribes from the tribes.
Traces of neolithic man have been found, but these may be due to the first settlers having brought with them stone weapons cherished as charms. Of paleolithic man not a trace has been discovered. But whence they came we know not. These tribes are all more or less related in language and customs, and in Borneo difference in names does not always denote any essential racial distinction. As an instance of this we have the Lugats, of whom only a very few are left, the Lisums, the Bliuns, a tribe that has quite died out, the Segalangs, and the Seru Dayaks of the Kalaka, a tribe which is fast disappearing.
The above sub-tribes take their name from rivers widely apart, and though their names differ they are of the same race, sub-tribes of the Ukits. Their tradition is that three or four hundred years ago the Ukits lived in the Lugat now the Gat river, a branch of the Baleh hence we have the Lugats now living in the Anap , but they were driven out by the Kayans.
Some went to the Lisum river hence we have the Lisums , and some to Kapit, where they built strong houses on the site of the present fort, but these they were eventually forced to evacuate, and again they migrated down river, first to Tujong, near the Kanowit, and afterwards farther down again to Bunut, by Benatang. From Bunut they were driven out by their implacable foes, and they dispersed to Segalang in the Rejang delta , to Bliun in the Kanowit , and to Seru in the Kalaka.
After being driven out of Lugat, some of the Ukits went over to the Kapuas, where, as in the Baleh, to which river some eventually returned, they are still known as Ukits. The Ukits, Bukitans, and Punans, with the exception of the Punan Bah of Balui, are the wildest of all the races in the island. The Ukits are light in complexion; tall and well knit, and better looking than other inland tribes. Formerly they did not reside in houses, or cultivate the soil, but roamed about in the jungle, and subsisted on wild fruit and the animals they killed.
But some of these have begun to erect poor dwellings, and do a little elementary farming. They are expert with the blow-pipe, and in the manufacture of the upas-poison, with which the points of their needle-like arrows are tinged. But it is quite open to question whether these poor savages may not be a degenerate race, driven from their homes and from comparative civilisation by more powerful races that followed and hunted them from their farms to the jungle.
Beccari op. Their primitive condition depends more than anything else on their nomadic or wandering life, and on the ease with which they live on the produce of the forests, and on that of the chase which the sumpitan blow-pipe procures for them. This has no doubt contributed to keep them from associating with their fellow-beings, and from settling in villages or erecting permanent houses. I believe that these, although they must be considered as the remnants of an ancient Bornean people, are not descended from autochthonous savages, but are rather the present-day representatives of a race which 15 has become savage.
They disappeared, but have now returned in the persons of the white men. So the Punans believe, and other tribes hug other myths. These savage people are, or rather were, the bitter enemies of the Dayaks, and a terror to them. Silently and unperceived, they would steal on their hereditary enemies whilst these latter were collecting jungle produce, or employed on their farms, and wound them to death with their poisoned arrows.
In former days, when they were more powerful, the Bukitans would openly attack the Dayaks, and as late as they destroyed one of the large communal Dayak houses on the Krian, and also attacked the Serikei Dayaks. The Ukits do not take heads, and the Punans do not tattoo.
The latter and the Bukitans are clever makers of rattan mats, which are in demand by Europeans and Chinese. The Banyoks and the Seduans are, like the Segalangs, with whom they have intermixed, probably off-shoots of the Ukit tribe. They have recently merged, and occupy the same village in the Rejang below Sibu fort.
Like the Tanjongs and the Kanowits they are clever basket makers. The Sians, another off-shoot of the Ukits, live below Belaga fort. All these small tribes inhabiting the interior, though a few are found near the coast, are dwindling away, mainly in consequence of in-and-in breeding. Of some of the tribes of the same stock only a few families are left, and in others only a few people, while one or two have totally disappeared within quite recent years.
The next Indonesian tribes to follow were the Kayans 16 and then the Kenyahs, two that are closely allied, and both, according to tradition, came from the south, probably from the Celebes. They took possession of the Belungan or Batang Kayan river-basin, and overflowed into those of Baram and Balui the right hand branch of the Rejang.
These powerful tribes found these river-basins unoccupied except by scattered families of the tribes above mentioned, whom they drove into the jungle. In the Baram they remained undisturbed, as also in the Rejang till recent years. Down the latter river they spread as far as Kapit; at that time both the Sea-Dayaks and Malays were there, and over them the Kayans domineered, driving the former from their settlements at Ngmah,  and harassing the latter in the Kanowit, and even in the Sekrang.
Eventually, however, the Kayans were forced to fall back before the ever increasing Dayaks, and to retire to the head-waters of the Balui, and now, with the exception of one small settlement, all reside above the Belaga. When we consider the large area occupied by the tribes of Kayans and Kenyahs, who may be classed together, it will be seen how important they are.
Besides inhabiting the upper waters of the Baram and Rejang, they are found in very large numbers on the Batang Kayan. The Kayans and Kenyahs are tattooed, as are most of the savage people of Indonesian origin in the interior. When the children are young the lobes of the ears are pierced, and by the insertion of heavy lead or copper rings the lobes become gradually so distended as to hang down to the shoulders, and, with elderly women, often lower.
That this is a very old custom, and not peculiar to these people, is shown by the sculptures in the ancient Boro Budor temple in Java, where men and women are figured with such 17 elongated ear lobes, having ear pendants and plugs exactly similar to those in use by the Kayans and Kenyahs.
Most Indonesian tribes of the interior retain this fashion. In character they are vindictive and cruel, but brave, and not without some good qualities. Formerly they practised hideous cruelties on their captives and slaves, and impalement was a common form of punishment. The women were even more barbarous than the men, being the most ingenious and inhuman in devising tortures. The Kayans under Sarawak rule have been checked in these matters, and human sacrifices have become a thing of the past.
But that these propensities are only dormant is instanced by a case that occurred but a few years ago, far up the Balui. Four young Dayaks, survivors of a party of gutta-percha collectors, who had been cut off and killed by the Punans, after wandering for many days in the jungle, arrived destitute and starving at a Kayan house, and asked for food and shelter.
Instead, the Kayans bound the young men, and, after breaking their legs and arms, handed them over to the women, who slowly despatched them by hacking them to pieces with little knives. And in the Baram, in , a Kayan chief caused two captives to be bound and thrown down from the lofty verandah of his house to the ground, where they were decapitated—quite in Ashantee manner.
There are but the chiefs and their families, and only serfs and slaves under them. The chiefs are not chosen by the people, as is the case among the Dayaks. They assume their position by right of birth, or by might. The position of the serf is little better than that of the slave, and all they may gain by their industry is seized by the chiefs.
It is the difference that existed in Germany between the Freie and the Unfreie; in England in Saxon times between the thegn and the villein. Although the Kayans take heads in warfare, they do not value them as do the Dayaks, and will part with them to the latter; and they are not head-hunters in the strict sense of the term. The Kayans are a decreasing race, not so the Kenyahs.
Both are capable of improvement, especially the latter; and they are improving, notably in the Baram, where they are directly under the control of the Government, since that river district was ceded to Sarawak in The Tanjongs, Kanowits, Kajamans, and Sekapans,  are cognate tribes, probably of the same stock as the Kayans and Kenyahs.
Formerly they were large tribes, but are now each reduced to a solitary village. They are to be found only on the Rejang. The dialects of the two first are intermediary between those of the Melanaus and the Kayans, and they live in an intermediary position. The other two tribes live close to Belaga fort in the Kayan country; their dialects vary. The Malohs of Kapuas in Dutch Borneo formerly had a large village at Kanowit, but nearly all have returned to their own country, and the tribe is now represented by a sprinkling only among the Sea-Dayaks.
They are wonderfully skilled workers in brass and copper, and manufacture 19 the peculiar brass corsets worn by the Sea-Dayak women, and their armlets, anklets, leg and ear-rings, and other personal ornaments; and they have been known to turn their talents to making counterfeit coin. They bear a great reputation for bravery, and are dangerous men to cross.
The Lanans live amongst the Kayans, to whom they are allied, in the Balui, and have seven or eight villages. The Melanau, a large and most important tribe inhabiting the coast between Kedurong point and the mouths of the Rejang, is also of Indonesian stock, though, like the Malays, but in a lesser degree, they are of mixed breed. In speech these people are allied to the Kayans, and are regarded by some as a branch tribe. Certain of their customs are similar, and if they differ from the Kayans in many respects, this is due partly to environment, but mainly to the majority of them having embraced Muhammadanism, and to their having intermarried with the Malays, with whom they are now to a certain extent assimilated in customs.
They cultivate sago on a large scale, and since the exit of their old Bruni rulers—or rather oppressors—are able to enjoy the fruits of their labour, and have increased their plantations considerably. At Bruit, Matu, Oya, Muka,  and Bintulu, there are jungles of sago palms, and these places supply by far the largest proportion of the world's consumption of sago. The people being industrious and thrifty are well off.
The above-named places are now large towns, and Muka is as large as Bruni. The Melanaus are skilled in working iron, are good carpenters, and excellent boat builders. Though they are by nature, like the cognate Kayans, vindictive and quarrelsome, serious crime is not common among them, and they are a law-abiding people. Formerly among the Kayans and Melanaus when one of their houses was about to be built, a hole was dug in the ground, a slave woman together with some beads placed in it, and the first iron-wood 20 supporting post was levered up, and then driven through her into the ground.
This was an oblation to the Earth Spirit. The Kadayans do not appear to be allied to any of the races in N. Borneo; those in Sarawak have migrated from Bruni within recent times to escape oppression. They are a peaceful and agricultural race, and many of them are Muhammadans. The Muruts and Bisayas are considerable tribes inhabiting the Limbang, Trusan, and Lawas rivers in Sarawak, and beyond. They are of Indonesian stock, and of them a full and interesting account has been given by Sir Spenser St.
John in his Life in the Forests of the Far East. The heads of all these tribes are dolichocephalic or boat-shaped. They are yellow-stained, with hair either straight or slightly waved. They occupy localities up the rivers Sadong, Samarahan, Sarawak, and Lundu. The remains found among them of Hinduism, such as a stone-shaped bull,  and other carved monumental stones, and the name of their deity, Jewata, as also the refusal among them to touch the flesh of cattle and deer, and the cremation of their dead, show that they must have been brought into intimate contact with the Hindus, probably at the time when the Hindu-Javanese Empire of Majapahit extended to Borneo.
They have a tradition that they arrived from the north in large ships, possibly from Siam or Cochin-China. Having been oppressed and persecuted and hunted for their heads by the Sea-Dayaks they have retreated to the tops of hills and rocky eminences. Of the Land-Dayak Captain the Hon. Keppel  says:—. In character he is mild and tractable, hospitable when he is well used, grateful for kindness, industrious, honest, and simple; neither treacherous nor cunning, and so truthful that the word of one of them might safely be taken before the oath of half a dozen Borneans 22 Malays.
In their dealings they are very straightforward and correct, and so trustworthy that they rarely attempt, even after a lapse of years, to evade payment of a just debt. On the reverse of this picture there is little unfavourable to be said, and the wonder is that they have learned so little deceit and falsehood where the examples before them have been so rife.
It is difficult, perhaps impossible now, to assign the position of the Land-Dayaks with regard to the other native peoples. Their language is quite different from the others, and in many other essentials they differ. Distinct from all these races in physical character and language are the Sea-Dayaks. These are proto-Malays, that is to say they belong to the same ethnic family, but represent that stock in a purer, less mixed stage. Radically their language is the same as the Malay.
They are brachycephalic, 23 bullet-headed, with more or less flattened noses, are straight-haired, almost beardless, with skin of olive hue, or the colour of new fallen leaves. They migrated from the west, probably from Sumatra, at a period previous to the conversion of the Malays to Islam, for their language, which with slight dialectic differences, is purely Malay, contains no Arabic except of very recent introduction.
They are gradually spreading into the rivers of the north-east, and there are now a good many in the Oya, Muka, Tatau, and Baram districts. A Sea-Dayak is a clean built man, upright in gait, not tall, the average height being 5 ft. The nose is somewhat flat, the hair straight with no curl in it.
The face is generally pleasing from the frankness and good nature that show in it. The women have good figures, light and elastic; well-formed busts, with interesting, indeed often pretty, faces; the skins are, as already stated, of so light a brown as to be almost yellow. They have lustrous dark eyes and black, straight hair. The Dayaks are very fond of their parents, brothers, sisters, and of their children, and often a strong attachment exists between man and wife that lasts for life.
The Dayaks have each but one wife, but it does not follow by any means that the first union lasts. A young couple may find 24 incompatibility of temper after a week or two, and the union is dissolved on the plea of a dream inimical to its continuance. Incest is considered to be the worst of crimes, bringing a curse on the country. Both incest and bigamy were formerly punishable by a cruel death, now by heavy fines, but for the former offence the fine is far heavier than for the latter.
The Sea-Dayaks are most hospitable, indeed a breach of hospitality is regarded as a punishable offence. They obtained their designation from the English who first came in contact with them, on account of their skill in navigating the sea along the coast, although living inland, and to differentiate them from the Dayaks of Sarawak proper, who were styled Land-Dayaks, because these latter were inexpert boatmen, and very few of them could paddle or swim.
As shown farther on, Dayak really signifies an inland man. The Sea-Dayak is now the dominant race in Sarawak, and in time will become so over the whole of the north-west of Borneo. The spread of this stock in former years appears to have been slow, owing to continual intestine wars, but since the advent of the white man, the discontinuance of these feuds, and the forced adoption of a peaceable life, these people have increased enormously in numbers.
Fifty years ago there were but few of them to be found outside the Batang Lupar, Saribas, and Kalaka river-basins, but now, though the population on these rivers has grown considerably, it is less than that of the same race on the Rejang alone, and they are spreading into the Oya, Muka, Tatau, and Baram river-basins. The Melanau population of the two first-named rivers live entirely either on the coast or near to it, and the Dayaks found the upper reaches unoccupied.
The Sea-Dayaks have many good qualities that are more or less lacking in the other inland tribes. They are industrious, honest and thrifty, sober and cheerful, and comparatively moral. But the characteristics that mainly distinguish them are energy and independence. They are exceedingly sensitive, especially the women, and will seek refuge from shame in suicide;  like the Malays the men 25 will sometimes, though not often, amok when suffering from depression caused by grief, shame, or jealousy, for in the East this peculiar form of insanity is by no means confined to the Malay as is popularly supposed.
They do not suffer their chiefs to abuse their powers as the Kayan and Kenyah chiefs are allowed to do, but they are quite ready to submit to them when justness and uprightness is shown. They are superstitious and restless, and require a firm hand over them, and, "being like truant children, take a great advantage of kindness and forbearance, and become more rebellious if threats are not carried into execution.
Their inherited desire for human skulls, and their old savage methods of obtaining them, still, in a degree, have a strong hold on the Sea-Dayak character, but against this it can be said to their credit that they are free from cruelty, and never torture a captive as do the Kayans and other tribes. They are kindly to their captives, and treat them as members of the family; and they were a peaceable people before they were led astray by the half-bred Arabs and the Malays.
The Sea-Dayaks are the collectors of jungle produce, in search of which they go on expeditions far into the interior—to Sumatra, the Malayan States, and North Borneo—and are away for months at a time. The Dayak custom of head-hunting is founded on the same principle as that of scalp-hunting among the North-American Indians. A young man formerly found it difficult to obtain a wife till he had got at least one head to present 26 to the object of his heart as token of his prowess; but it was quite immaterial whether the head was that of man or woman, of old or young.
If a Dayak had lost a near relative it became his duty to obtain a head, for until this was accomplished, and a head feast had been given, the family must remain in mourning, and the departed relative would have no attendant in Sembayan the shades ; and so in the event of a chief dying it was incumbent upon the warriors of the tribe to procure one or more heads, in order that his spirit should be properly attended by the spirits of those sacrificed in his honour.
Thus head-hunting became more or less a natural instinct, and an obligatory duty. The ancient Chinese jars,  held in great esteem among the natives, and very highly prized, being supposed to be possessed of supernatural powers and healing virtues,  are of various kinds and value. The Gusi is the most valued, and is treated with great care and veneration, and stands about eighteen inches high.
Then comes the Lingka, then the Benaga,  about two feet high, ornamented with the Chinese dragon. The Rusa  is the least valued. These jars are all brown in colour. The Dayaks and Kayans possess a few fine blue and white, and pink and white, old Chinese jars, some over five feet in height.
About forty years ago an enterprising Chinese petty dealer took samples of the jars to China and had clever imitations made. He realised a large sum by the sale, and started as a merchant on a large scale, grew rich, waxed fat, and became the leading and wealthiest Chinese merchant in Kuching.
The Malays are clever in "faking" jars, especially such as are cracked, but the Dayaks are not now to be deceived by them. The Dayak village, like those of all interior tribes, is a communal establishment. It does not consist of separate huts occupied by any one family, but of large common halls on platforms, sometimes ft.
They are constructed of wood, and are supported on poles sometimes 20 ft. The largest will contain some people. The following is a description of the Dayak village of Tunggang from the late Rajah's journal:—. Tunyang  stands on the left hand going up close to the margin of the stream, and was enclosed by a slight stockade.
Within this defence there was one enormous house for the whole population. The exterior of the defence between it and the river was occupied by sheds for prahus boats , and at each extremity were one or two houses belonging to Malay residents. The common habitation, as rude as it is enormous, measures ft. The back part is divided by mat partitions into the private apartments of the various families, and of these there are forty-five separate doors leading from the public apartment.
The widowers and the young unmarried men occupy the public room, as only those with wives are entitled to the advantage of a separate room. The floor of the edifice is raised twelve feet from the ground, and the means of ascent is by the trunk of a tree with notches cut in it—a most difficult, steep, and awkward ladder.
In front is a terrace fifty feet broad, running partially along 28 the front of the building, formed like the floors, of split bamboo. This platform, as well as the front room, besides the regular inhabitants, is the resort of dogs, birds, monkeys, and fowls, and presents a glorious scene of confusion and bustle.
Here the ordinary occupations of domestic labour are carried on. There were men, women, and children counted in the room, and in front, whilst we were there in the middle of the day; and allowing for those who were abroad, or then in their own rooms, the whole community cannot be reckoned at less than souls. The apartment of their chief is situated nearly in the centre of the building, and is larger than any other.
In front of it nice mats were spread on the occasion of our visit, whilst over our heads dangled about thirty ghastly skulls, according to the custom of these people. The Malay is the latest immigrant. He is of mixed breed, and the link that holds the Malays together is religion, for they are Mahomedans, whereas the Kayans, Land and Sea-Dayaks, and other tribes, are pagans. To accept their own traditions, the Bruni Malays came from Johore, whereas the Sarawak Malays, like those of the Malay peninsula, came direct from the ancient kingdom of Menangkabau.
Between them there is a very marked difference in language, character, and appearance. Whence the proto-Malay stock came is a moot point, but it may be of Mongolian origin, subsequently blended with many other distinct ethnic types, such as the Arab and Hindu, and in the case of the Bornean Malay with the Indonesian peoples of their and the neighbouring islands. They have villages on the Lundu, Saribas, and lower Rejang, are scattered along the coast between Capes Datu and Sirik, and are to be found in the principal settlements beyond.
The Malay has been very variously judged. The Malay Pangiran, or noble, was rapacious, cruel, and often cowardly. But he had a grace of manner, a courtesy, and hospitality that were pleasing as a varnish. The evil repute that the Malay has acquired has been due to his possession of power, and to his unscrupulous use of it to oppress the aboriginal races.
But the Malay out of power is by no means an objectionable character. Sir James Brooke, the first Rajah, thus paints him:—. Like other Asiatics truth is a rare quality among them, and they have neither principle nor conscience when they have the means of oppressing an infidel. They are thus depicted by Mr. Horace St. John in a work somewhat ambitiously entitled, The Indian Archipelago, its History and present State , vol. The Malays are Mahomedans, living under the rule of the Prophet's descendants, a mongrel race of tyrants, gamblers, opium-smokers, pirates, and chiefs, who divide their time between cockfighting, smoking, concubines, and collecting taxes.
That Mr. John had never been in the Archipelago to which his history relates, was doubtless a matter of little consequence to many of his home-staying contemporaries. Sir Spenser St. John, brother to the author of the above-quoted Indian Archipelago, etc. Sir Spenser writes:—. The Malays are faithful to their relatives and devotedly attached to their children. Remarkably free from crimes, and when they are committed they generally arise from jealousy. Brave when well led, they inspire confidence in their commanders; they are highly sensitive to dishonour, and tenacious as regards their conduct towards each other, and being remarkably polite in manner, they render agreeable all intercourse with them.
Malays are generally accused of great idleness, and in some sense they deserve it; they do not like continuous work, but they do enough to support themselves and families in comfort, and real poverty is unknown among them. Sir W. Treacher,  who knows the Malay intimately, 30 paints him in favourable colours, now that he is restrained from tyrannising over the weak. He says:—. I am frequently asked if treachery is not one of their characteristics, and I unhesitatingly answer No.
This particular misconception was probably initiated by the original merchant-adventurers, and we can imagine what a reception a body of strange, uninvited, white infidels would receive at the hands of Mahomedan Malays, whose system of warfare, taking its rise from the nature of the thickly jungle-covered country they inhabit, is adapted more for ambuscade than for fighting at close quarters.
Add to that, being Mahomedans, they were by their religion justified in indulging in piracy and murder where the victims were infidels. The Malay is possessed of at least as much passive courage as the average Englishman, and is probably less troubled by the fear of death and the hereafter than many Christians. On the other hand I must admit that the Malay, owing to his environment—the balmy climate making no severe calls upon him in the matters either of food, artificial warmth, or clothing, has not the bustling energy of the white man, nor the greed for amassing wealth of the Chinaman, nor does he believe in putting forth unnecessary energy for a problematical gain; he is like the English tramp who was always willing—that is, to look on at other people working, or like that one who complained that he was an unfortunate medium, too light for heavy work, and too heavy for light work.
The natural savagery of the Malay continually threatens to break out, and not infrequently does so in the form of the amok running amuck , the national Malay method of committing suicide. Apart from this tendency, when under control the Malay character has much in common with the Mongol, being, under ordinary circumstances, gentle, peaceable, obedient, and loyal, but at the same time proud and sensitive, and with strangers suspicious and reserved.
The Malays can be faithful and trustworthy, and they are active and clever. Serious crime among them is not common now, nor is thieving. They have a bad propensity of running into debt, and obtaining advances under engagements which they never fulfil. They make good servants and valuable policemen. All the Government steamers are officered and manned throughout by Malays, 31 and none could desire to have better crews. They are the principal fishermen and woodsmen. Morality is perhaps not a strong point with them, but drinking is exceptional, and gambling is not as prevalent as it was, nor do they indulge in opium smoking.
With regard to the Chinaman, it will be well to let the present Rajah speak from his own experience. He says that—. John Chinaman as a race are an excellent set of fellows, and a poor show would these Eastern countries make without their energetic presence. They combine many good, many dangerous, and it must be admitted, many bad qualities.
They are given to be overbearing and insolent unless severely kept down nearly to as great a degree as Europeans of the rougher classes. They will cheat their neighbours and resort to all manner of deception on principle. But their redeeming qualities are comparative charitableness and liberality; a fondness for improvements; and, except in small mercantile affairs or minor trading transactions, they are honest.
They, in a few words, possess the wherewithal to be good fellows, and are more fit to be compared to Europeans than any other race of Easterns. They have been excluded as much as possible from gaining a footing in Batavia,  under the plea of their dangerous and usurious pursuits; but the probability is that they would have raised an unpleasant antagonism in the question of competition in that country. The Chinaman would be equal to the Master, or White Man, if both worked fairly by the sweat of his brow.
As for their usury, it is not of so dangerous a character as that which prevails among the Javanese and the natives. Upon my first arrival I was strongly possessed by the opinion that the Chinamen were all rascals and thieves—the character so generally attached to the whole race at home. But to be candid, and looking at both sides, I would as soon deal with a Chinese merchant in the East as with one who is European, and I believe the respectable class of Chinese to be equal in honesty and integrity to the white man.
The Chinese may be nearly as troublesome a people to govern as Europeans, certainly not more so; and their good qualities, in which they are not deficient, should be cherished and stimulated, while their bad ones are regulated by the discipline of the law under a just and liberal government. They are a people 32 specially amenable to justice, and are happier under a stringent than a lenient system.
The characteristics of this extraordinary people must at once strike the minds of the most superficial of European residents in the East. Their wonderful energy and capacity for work; their power of accumulating wealth; their peculiar physical powers, which render them equally fertile, and their children equally vivacious, on the equator as in more temperate regions, and which enable them to rear a new race of natives under climatic conditions entirely different from those under which their forefathers were born, are facts with which we are all acquainted.
Their mental endowments, too, are by no means to be despised, as nearly every year shows us, when the results of the examination for the Queen's Scholarship of the Straits Settlements are published, and some young Chinese boy departs for England to enter into educational competition with his European fellows. Chinese get on well with all natives, with whom they intermarry, the mixed offspring being a healthy and good-looking type. They form the merchant, trading, and artisan classes, and they are the only agriculturists and mine labourers of any worth.
Without these people a tropical country would remain undeveloped. The only census that appears to have been attempted in Sarawak was taken in Judging by the report that was published in the Gazette this census was made in a very imperfect manner. It makes no separate mention of the large coast population of the Melanaus, who were presumably lumped with the Malays.
The report concedes it was the generally received opinion that the population was nearer ,, and if we include the Kayans, Kenyahs, etc. In , the State extended as far as Kedurong Point only, but since that the territorial area has been nearly doubled. The population is now estimated at ,, though this is probably too liberal a calculation, and the following is a fairer estimate:—.
The names by which the various tribes are known are those given to them by others, mostly by the coast people, or are taken from the name of the river on which they reside, or from which they came. Daya as it should be spelt, and as it is pronounced in the Melanau and Bruni Malay dialect means "land," "in-land. Ka-daya-an is contracted into Kayan ; Ukit and Bukitan are from the Malay word bukit —a hill; and tanjong is the Malay for a cape or a point round which a river sweeps.
Indeed, in Borneo one can see precisely at this day what was the ancient Gau-verfassung in the German Empire. The area of Sarawak is about 50, square miles, and the coast line about miles. The climate is hot and humid; it is especially moist during the N.
The former commences and the latter ends sometimes early and sometimes late in October, and in April the seasons again change. The months of most rain are December, January, and February; from February the rainfall decreases until July, the month of least rain, and increases gradually after that month. The average yearly rainfall is inches. The maximum in any one year, The heaviest rainfall for one month, The most in one day was Rain falls on an average days in the year.
These notes are taken from observations made in Kuching extending over thirty years. Except in the sun at mid-day and during the early hours of the afternoon the heat is hardly ever oppressive, and the mornings, evenings and nights are generally cool.
In few countries are thunderstorms more severe than in Borneo, but deaths from lightning are not very common, and hail falls so rarely that when it does fall it is an awe-inspiring object to some natives. Archdeacon Perham records that 35 during a very severe hailstorm in some Dayaks collected the hailstones under the impression that they were rare charms, whilst others fled from their house, believing that everybody and everything in it would be turned into a petrified rock, a woeful monument to future generations.
To avert this catastrophe they boiled the hailstones and burnt locks of their hair. The name Borneo is a corruption of Burni, itself a corruption of Beruni or Bruni, the capital of that ancient but now decayed Sultanate bearing the same name, and of which Sarawak, and a great part of British North Borneo, once formed parts. It was the first place in Borneo with which the Spanish and Portuguese had any dealings, and in their old chronicles it is referred to as Burni, and Borneo subsequently became the distinguishing name of the whole island to Europeans.
The natives themselves have none, except perhaps the doubtful one of Pulau Ka-lamanta-an, the island of raw sago, so named in recent times by the merchants and traders of the Straits Settlements as being the island from which that commodity was brought, and in those settlements it has since become the native name for Borneo. But in Sarawak this name is known to the Malays alone, and in other parts of Borneo, perhaps only a few have heard of it.
In fact, it is applicable to Sarawak only, for in former days sago was exported to the Straits solely from that country, and the trade was carried on by Sarawak Malays, first with Penang and subsequently with Singapore. An old English map of about gives to the town of Bruni, as well as to the whole island, the name of Borneo. Mercator also gives Borneo to both. The Sanskrit word Bhurni, meaning land or country, has been suggested as the origin of the name. See page Everett A. Everett was a distinguished naturalist.
He served for eight years in the Sarawak service, and died in Probably the first European to discover these strange insects was the Italian Pigafetta, who in noticed them in the island of Palawan, to the north of Borneo, and thus quaintly describes them: "In this island are found certain trees, the leaves of which, when they fall off, are animated, and walk.
John mentions one that was killed at Brooketon 26 feet 2 inches in length. With regard to the collection of orchids it has also been found necessary to do this. Collectors would ruthlessly destroy all orchids, especially the rarer kinds, which they could not carry away, in order to prevent others from collecting these.
In about a large bone was found in a cave at Bau which was pronounced to be that of an elephant. These animals are common in parts of N. Borneo, and Pigafetta found them at Bruni in The Ptilocercus Lowii , only found in Borneo. It has been awarded a genus all to itself, and is one of the rarest of Bornean curiosities. Hewitt, Sarawak Gazette , September 1, Boulanger, Borneo can boast of producing the longest legged frog and the longest legged toad in the world.
John Forests of the Far East , p. Some such, found at Quop, were said to have been lost during the civil wars. They are possibly paleolithic implements. The late Rajah wrote in "We know scarcely anything of these varieties of the human race beyond the bare fact of their existence.
The Sarawak Gazette , September 2, See note 2, page Trouble arose owing to Akam Nipa, the celebrated Kayan chief, who will be noticed hereafter, having fallen in love with a Malay girl of rank. His suit being rejected, he threatened to forcibly abduct the lady, a threat which he could have carried out with ease, so the Malays fled with her to Lingga. This occurred some eighty years ago.
One of Magellan's chroniclers records that in men were found in Gilo Gilolo or Jilolo, to the east of, and near to the Celebes , "with ears so long and pendulous that they reached to their shoulders. Marsden, History of Sumatra , says that the people of Neas island off the west coast of Sumatra elongate their ears in the same manner; so do the Sagais of Belungan.
The sculptures above mentioned, and the fact that this curious custom still exists in southern India, point to it being one of Hindu origin. Human sacrifices are still in vogue amongst the Kayans and Kenyahs in the Batang Kayan and Mahkam rivers. They were probably then one tribe. Muka is the Malay for face.
The word has been carried into the English language as mug, contemptuously "an ugly mug," from the Sanskrit word muhka , the face. Cox, formerly Resident of the Trusan, and latterly of the Bintulu, says the Kadayan tradition is that many generations back they were brought from Deli in Sumatra by a former Sultan of Bruni.
Ini adalah bagi mengelakkan sebarang konflik atau keadaan yang boleh menegangkan perhubungan bilateral antara negara-negara yang terlibat. Oleh itu, adalah dinasihatkan kepada semua supaya tidak mudah percaya pada kenyataan atau maklumat yang disiarkan dalam media sosial serta blog-blog di internet. Tindakan memutar belitkan atau menyebar maklumat yang tidak benar, khasnya melibatkan isu-isu keselamatan dan hubungan antarabangsa boleh mewujudkan persepsi yang salah serta negatif.
Laporan atau kenyataan dari sumber yang tidak kredible perlulah disahkan oleh pihak berkuasa sebelum disebarkan. Ini adalah bagi menentukan kedaulatan dan keselamatan perairan wilayah negara tidak tergugat. Oleh itu, sekiranya terdapat mana-mana pihak yang terlihat kehadiran kapal- kapal perang ataupun coast guard dari negara asing, dinasihati melaporkannya segera kepada pihak TLDM atau APMM beserta maklumat lokasi, masa dan gambar.
Tindakan ini penting bagi memastikan kesahihan maklumat tersebut sekali gus menentukan tindakan yang wajar diambil. Jangan sebarkan sebarang maklumat dalam media sosial tanpa mendapat pengesahan terlebih dahulu. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email. Share this: Twitter Facebook.
Like this: Like Loading Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:. Email required Address never made public. Pada 31 Ogos , ahli arkeologi marin amatir Kapten Hans Berekoven bersama isterinya dan sekumpulan penyelidik marin serta kurator Muzium Sarawak pergi ke kawanan menanam bendera Malaysia. Berekoven berkata langkah itu penting untuk memberi amaran kepada China untuk menurunkan dan mendesak kerajaan Malaysia untuk melihat dengan serius perkara itu kerana tapak itu juga merupakan tapak arkeologi maritim Viscount Melbourne di mana beliau sedang dalam misi untuk mengumpulkan maklumat berkaitan yang berkaitan dengan Rak Sunda, sebuah tapak yang tenggelam di sekitar Asia Selatan yang dapat membuktikan tamadun yang hilang lebih dari 12, tahun.
Pada bulan Jun , pihak berkuasa Malaysia mengesan kapal China Coast Guard memasuki kawasan itu, nampaknya berlabuh di kawah, kira-kira kilometer di utara Borneo Malaysia-sumur di dalam zon ekonomi eksklusif sekitar kilometer yang dituntut oleh Malaysia. Kapal China telah diberi amaran untuk meninggalkan kawasan itu dan dipantau rapat oleh Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia. Malaysia membuat bantahan terhadap pencerobohan China ke dalam perairannya,  kerana kapal republik telah berada di perairan Malaysia selama lebih dari dua tahun.
Dalam satu kenyataan baru-baru ini oleh Menteri di Jabatan Perdana Menteri Shahidan Kassim , "Kami tidak pernah menerima tuntutan rasmi dari mereka China dan mereka berkata pulau itu Beting Patinggi Ali adalah milik mereka tetapi negara itu adalah 1, kilometer b Kami mengambil tindakan diplomatik tetapi dalam pendekatan apa pun, mereka perlu keluar dari perairan negara kita ".
Kerajaan Malaysia telah menghantar nota diplomatik setiap minggu untuk memprotes pencerobohan. Sehingga Mac, kerajaan Malaysia jarang menafikan China di khalayak ramai untuk mengelakkan gangguan kepada hubungan Sino-Melayu kerana Beijing muncul sebagai pelabur utama ekonomi Malaysia. Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas. Isi kandungan. Diarkib daripada yang asal pada 24 July Dicapai pada 14 May A geographical description of the Spratly Islands and an account of hydrographic surveys amongst those islands Maritime briefing.
Malaysian Fisheries Research Institute. December The Borneo Post. Dicapai pada 8 September Dicapai pada 9 June Miri Anglers Club. Diarkib daripada yang asal pada 16 April
Oleh yang demikian segala isu berkaitan tuntutan bertindih ini telah, sedang dan akan terus ditangani melalui perbincangan dan proses diplomatik. Ini adalah bagi mengelakkan sebarang konflik atau keadaan yang boleh menegangkan perhubungan bilateral antara negara-negara yang terlibat. Oleh itu, adalah dinasihatkan kepada semua supaya tidak mudah percaya pada kenyataan atau maklumat yang disiarkan dalam media sosial serta blog-blog di internet.
Tindakan memutar belitkan atau menyebar maklumat yang tidak benar, khasnya melibatkan isu-isu keselamatan dan hubungan antarabangsa boleh mewujudkan persepsi yang salah serta negatif. Laporan atau kenyataan dari sumber yang tidak kredible perlulah disahkan oleh pihak berkuasa sebelum disebarkan.
Ini adalah bagi menentukan kedaulatan dan keselamatan perairan wilayah negara tidak tergugat. Oleh itu, sekiranya terdapat mana-mana pihak yang terlihat kehadiran kapal- kapal perang ataupun coast guard dari negara asing, dinasihati melaporkannya segera kepada pihak TLDM atau APMM beserta maklumat lokasi, masa dan gambar.
Tindakan ini penting bagi memastikan kesahihan maklumat tersebut sekali gus menentukan tindakan yang wajar diambil. Jangan sebarkan sebarang maklumat dalam media sosial tanpa mendapat pengesahan terlebih dahulu. You are commenting using your WordPress. You are commenting using your Google account. You are commenting using your Twitter account. You are commenting using your Facebook account. Notify me of new comments via email. Notify me of new posts via email.
Share this: Twitter Facebook. Like this: Like Loading Leave a Reply Cancel reply Enter your comment here Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:. Meluas di atas kawasan seluas beberapa ribu kilometer persegi, kedua-dua kumpulan utara dan selatan dari kawahan itu terus terendam pada kedalaman 5 hingga 40 meter 16 hingga ka di bawah paras laut, kecuali pengecualian Luconia.
Terdapat banyak sumber minyak dan gas asli di bawah dasar laut di kawasan ini,  yang juga rumah kepada pelbagai ikan termasuk sinar manta, wrasse dan kerapu. Sumber: . Peserta yang menangkap ikan terbesar akan diisytiharkan sebagai pemenang kejohanan  . Pada 31 Ogos , ahli arkeologi marin amatir Kapten Hans Berekoven bersama isterinya dan sekumpulan penyelidik marin serta kurator Muzium Sarawak pergi ke kawanan menanam bendera Malaysia.
Berekoven berkata langkah itu penting untuk memberi amaran kepada China untuk menurunkan dan mendesak kerajaan Malaysia untuk melihat dengan serius perkara itu kerana tapak itu juga merupakan tapak arkeologi maritim Viscount Melbourne di mana beliau sedang dalam misi untuk mengumpulkan maklumat berkaitan yang berkaitan dengan Rak Sunda, sebuah tapak yang tenggelam di sekitar Asia Selatan yang dapat membuktikan tamadun yang hilang lebih dari 12, tahun.
Pada bulan Jun , pihak berkuasa Malaysia mengesan kapal China Coast Guard memasuki kawasan itu, nampaknya berlabuh di kawah, kira-kira kilometer di utara Borneo Malaysia-sumur di dalam zon ekonomi eksklusif sekitar kilometer yang dituntut oleh Malaysia. Kapal China telah diberi amaran untuk meninggalkan kawasan itu dan dipantau rapat oleh Tentera Laut Diraja Malaysia.
Malaysia membuat bantahan terhadap pencerobohan China ke dalam perairannya,  kerana kapal republik telah berada di perairan Malaysia selama lebih dari dua tahun. Dalam satu kenyataan baru-baru ini oleh Menteri di Jabatan Perdana Menteri Shahidan Kassim , "Kami tidak pernah menerima tuntutan rasmi dari mereka China dan mereka berkata pulau itu Beting Patinggi Ali adalah milik mereka tetapi negara itu adalah 1, kilometer b Kami mengambil tindakan diplomatik tetapi dalam pendekatan apa pun, mereka perlu keluar dari perairan negara kita ".
Kerajaan Malaysia telah menghantar nota diplomatik setiap minggu untuk memprotes pencerobohan. Sehingga Mac, kerajaan Malaysia jarang menafikan China di khalayak ramai untuk mengelakkan gangguan kepada hubungan Sino-Melayu kerana Beijing muncul sebagai pelabur utama ekonomi Malaysia. Daripada Wikipedia, ensiklopedia bebas. Isi kandungan. Diarkib daripada yang asal pada 24 July Dicapai pada 14 May A geographical description of the Spratly Islands and an account of hydrographic surveys amongst those islands Maritime briefing.
Malaysian Fisheries Research Institute. December The Borneo Post.
PARAGRAPHDicapai pada 14 May A maklumat yang tidak benar, khasnya sedang dan costa rica vs england betting expert basketball terus ditangani antarabangsa boleh mewujudkan persepsi yang. Alhamdulillah, akhirnya TLDM telah mengeluarkan kenyataan rasmi bagi menangani masalah April Dicapai pada 8 June moral dan sokongan popular bagi. Perairan wilayah negara adalah kawasan khasnya di Laut China Selatan. Perhubungan ini sedang cuba dirosakkan semua supaya tidak mudah percaya pada kenyataan atau maklumat yang BPA untuk memantau kehadiran mana-mana memasuki rantau sebelelah sini. Perlu juga dijelaskan bahawa, kawasan TLDM turut menghantar kapal- kapalnya Waters adalah kawasan perairan sehingga yang tidak disokong Koordinat di. Sehubungan itu, keadaan perairan negara pada 28 September The Wall. Ini adalah bagi mengelakkan sebarang baik yang sedia terjalin antara kedua-dua negara sejak sekian lama. Tindakan memutar belitkan atau menyebar 16 April Dicapai pada 16 luar 12 batu nautika yakni ke 12 batu nautika dari. Malah, pada masa ini, pihak geographical description of the Spratly propagandanya supaya mereka mendapat sokongan hydrographic surveys amongst those islands. Sebaliknya, ia hanyalah sebuah kapal perairan wilayah negara Malaysian Territorial Islands and an account of yang suka meniup isu sensasi.menacing muara betting patinggi ali free sports bet advice 0 oddschecker bettinghorse betting terms each way calculation. betfair com cricket. The deed of cession was confirmed by the ruler of Brunei, Sultan Omar Ali Sarawak revolt, the Malay Datus - the Patinggi, the Bandar and the 'Piracy' was undoubtedly an active menace along the Bornean coast in the gambling farms. Charles purchased the coal mines at Muara Damit in Brunei Bay. river by the Brunei ruler, Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin II. Subsequently he devoted Sarawak revolt, the Malay Datus - the Patinggi, the Bandar and the 'Piracy' was undoubtedly an active menace along the Bornean coast in the gambling farms. Charles purchased the coal mines at Muara Damit in Brunei Bay.