If the 7 over 6 pays 5 to 1 instead of 6 to 1, then the house edge is as follows: Player Bad Beat with 8 decks: 4. The method begins with operation , wherein the casino house receives wagers from players on the table. This is done as known in the art, wherein the player places wagers in respective betting circles on the table.
The player can place any combination of wagers the player wishes using the betting circles as illustrated in FIG. From operation , the method proceeds to operation , which deals and resolves the players hand and the banker's hand. This is done as described above and also as described in U. From operation , the method proceeds to operation , which evaluates the point totals. This is done as described herein. The numerical values of each card in each hand player's hand, banker's hand are added together modulo 10 which means dropping the first digit if the total is greater than 9.
From operation , the method proceeds to operation , which resolves the wagers placed in operation If the player bet on the tie bet and the player's total equals the banker's total, then the tie bet wins can be paid at , otherwise the tie bet loses. If the player bet on the player bet: if the player's total is higher than the banker's total then the player bet wins; if the player's total ties the banker's total then the player bet pushes neither wins or loses ; if the player's total is less than the banker's total then the player bet loses.
If the player bet on the banker bet: if the banker's total is higher than the player's total then the banker bet wins; if the banker's total ties the player's total then the banker bet pushes neither wins or loses ; if the banker's total is less than the player's total then the banker bet loses. If the player also places the player side bet or the banker side bet, these bets can be resolved as described herein.
If in operation it is determined that the player did not place the player side wager bet in operation , then there is no need to proceed with FIG. If in operation , it is determined that the player did place the player side wager bet in operation , then the method proceeds to operation In operation , it is determined if the player's point total equals the banker's point total minus 1 the banker wins by one point.
If so, then the method proceeds to operation , wherein the player wins the player side wager and the payout is determined using a player side wager paytable. If in operation , it is determined that the player's point total does not equal the banker's point total minus 1, then the method proceeds to operation wherein the player loses the player side wager.
If in operation it is determined that the player did not place the banker side wager bet in operation , then there is no need to proceed with FIG. If in operation , it is determined that the player did place the banker side wager bet in operation , then the method proceeds to operation In operation , it is determined if the banker's point total equals the player's point total minus 1 the player wins by one point.
If so, then the method proceeds to operation , wherein the player wins the banker side wager and the payout is determined using a banker side wager paytable. If in operation , it is determined that the banker's point total does not equal the player's point total minus 1, then the method proceeds to operation wherein the player loses the banker side wager. A physical gaming table is used to play the game. An electronic card shuffler can be used to shuffle the deck before each hand.
A player's hand and a banker's hand are shown. The gaming table illustrated can accommodate seven simultaneous players, although of course any other number of players can be accommodated as well. Each player has their own set of betting circles as illustrated in FIG. Note that there is only one banker hand and one player hand dealt, and all players at the table share these common hands for their own respective wagers.
There are no actions taken by the player other than choosing which bets to place before the game begins. A tie betting circle is used by the player to place the tie wager. A banker betting circle is used by the player to place the standard baccarat banker wager.
A player betting circle is used by the player to place the standard baccarat player wager. A banker side wager betting circle is used to place the banker side wager also can be referred to as banker side bet as described herein.
A player side wager betting circle is used to place the player side wager also can be referred to as player side bet as described herein. The player can choose to bet on any combination of the five betting circles, and the player can even bet on both the player side bet and the banker side bet if the player wishes. The player is not required to bet on either of the side bets if the player does not want to.
Of course the layout of the betting areas illustrated in FIG. Some examples of the game will now be presented. According to the baccarat rules, the banker and player do not draw. The player has a point total of 8 and the banker has a point total of 9. Thus, the player's point total is equal to the banker's point total minus one, thus the player side bet wins. According to Table II, this pays Since the banker point total is higher than the player's point total, Joe loses the standard player bet.
The dealer deals the player a 2 and a 3 and the banker a 5 and a 2. According to baccarat rules, the player takes a third card which turns out to be an 8 for a point total of 3. According to Table II, the banker stands. Thus, the player has a point total of 3 vs. Jane loses the player side bet since the player's point total is not equal to the dealer's point total minus 1 , but Jane wins her standard banker bet because the banker's point total is higher than the player's point total.
The dealers deals the player a 5 and a 10 and the dealer a 9 and a 2. According to Baccarat rules, the player hits takes a card and is dealt a 2, for a point total of 7. According to Baccarat rules, the dealer hits and receives a 5, for a banker point total of 6. Regarding the player side wager, since the banker point total is not one higher than the player point total, Bob loses the player side wager. The methods described herein can be played on a electronic gaming device, on a home computer, on a home computer running an Internet casino, on a multi-game unit at a casino or bar, on a portable computing device e.
A processing unit can be a microprocessor and associated structure e. The processing unit reads instructions from an electronic storage and executes the instructions which would be programmed to perform the methods described herein. The processing unit can also be connected to a network unit which can access a computer communications network such as the Internet, a wifi, LAN, WAN, casino network, etc. The computer readable storage medium can store programs and assets to instruct the processing unit to execute any of the methods described herein.
The processing unit can also be connected to a payment mechanism Any description of a component or embodiment herein also includes hardware, software, and configurations which already exist in the prior art and may be necessary to the operation of such component s or embodiment s.
The physical game is played using physical cards and physical chips on a physical gaming table. Chips can be used which are immediately redeemable for cash at the casino cashier. An electronic mechanical shuffler can be used to shuffle the cards. Further, the operations described herein can be performed in any sensible order.
Any operations not required for proper operation can be optional. Further, all methods described herein can also be stored on a computer readable storage to control a computer. The many features and advantages of the invention are apparent from the detailed specification and, thus, it is intended by the appended claims to cover all such features and advantages of the invention that fall within the true spirit and scope of the invention. Further, since numerous modifications and changes will readily occur to those skilled in the art, it is not desired to limit the invention to the exact construction and operation illustrated and described, and accordingly all suitable modifications and equivalents may be resorted to, falling within the scope of the invention.
Year of fee payment : 4. Effective date : Year of fee payment : 8. A method to implement two side bets for the casino card game of Baccarat. The player can choose to bet on a player side bet, a banker side bet, or play both side bets. The player side bet wins if, after the game is resolved, the player point total is one less than the banker point total, and loses in all other situations.
The banker side bet wins if, after the game is resolved, the banker point total is one less than the player point total, and loses in all other situations. Subsets of these winning sets can be used as well for the winning combinations. Field of the Invention The present general inventive concept is directed to a method, apparatus, and computer readable storage medium directed to a casino wagering game on baccarat.
Description of the Related Art The game of baccarat is well known in the art. The rules of standard Baccarat are summarized in Table I below. If the player drew a third card, then the banker acts according to Table III. TABLE III Player Draw Card Banker Action banker draws if banker has , stands if banker has banker draws if banker has , stands if banker has banker draws if banker has , stands if banker has 8 banker draws if banker has and stands if banker has A, 9, 10 or banker draws if banker has and stands if banker has face card The player player or banker with the highest hand wins.
Table VI below represents player bad beat bet with six decks. A method for implementing a casino wagering game, the method comprising: executing on an electronic processor computer readable instructions that direct the processor to perform:. The method as recited in claim 1 , wherein the predetermined rule for resolving the player side wager applies for player point totals from It is important to note that while the present invention has been described as a method, those skilled in the art will appreciate that the method of the present invention is capable of being distributed in the form of a computer readable medium of instructions in a variety of forms, and that the present invention applies equally, regardless of the particular type of signal bearing media utilized to carry out the distribution.
Examples of computer readable media include: non-volatile, hard-coded type media such as read only memories ROMs or erasable, electrically programmable read only memories EEPROMs , recordable-type media such as floppy disks, hard disk drives and CD-ROMs and transmission-type media such as digital and analog communication links.
The virtual game system may generate photorealistic visual quality. The video and visual quality of the virtual sporting event may transcend any virtual gaming content presently commercially available. For instance, whilst watching a virtual horse race, one can clearly see the difference in the life-like nature of the motion-captured three-dimensional thoroughbreds with extreme precision to show each horse's coat markings, muscle structure and shadows.
Furthermore, the virtual background setting can be at the world's most premier facilities e. Pari-mutuel wagering is enabled by providing a rich history of information about the competitors, the events and performance, to allow players to make an informed decision. The history of each event and performance of each competitor is stored by the computer system. Wagers can be made through a variety of means, such as web, shop cashier, telephone and mobile devices.
Betting can be deployed to ensure local regulations specific to the territory are adhered. Each wager may be associated with a pool of wagers from other players wagering on the event, as in pari-mutuel wagering. After betting is opened, a player may place a wager e. All betting may be stopped at a pre-determined time before the live virtual event begins e. A pre-determined amount of all the wagers made may be retained by the licensed betting operator and the remaining amount may be distributed to the winning players, regardless of the outcome of the race.
For some types of pari-mutuel wagers, if there is no winner, a pre-determined amount of each specific wager type may be redistributed into the pool for the next event. Also, pari-mutuel betting may allow bettors from all over the globe to bet on the same virtual sporting event e. Thus, a bettor can be located anywhere in the world adhering to their local regulatory requirements when betting.
In addition, the virtual event enables progressive or cumulative wagering. Wagering can be integrated with an existing tote per the existing United States betting system. Thus, a global pari-mutuel betting pool is provided. Unlike typical fixed odds virtual sport systems or the few pari-mutuel virtual sport systems commercially available or in development, the outcome of the virtual event in this disclosure is not based on a singular random number generator where each competitor in a race has a statistically pre-determined or specified chance of winning.
The outcome can be determined real-time as the virtual event unfolds based on a plurality of factors using perturbation models with algorithms. Specifically, and usually, for fixed odds betting markets, before the event transpires, outcome probabilities may be calculated, using a related but separate subsystem, by simulating the event thousands of times, thus it is possible to calculate fixed odds for an instance of the event.
These traditional fixed odds system are suitable for the more traditional slot machine style games, and is how many existing technologies work. A broadcast of the virtual event may be via many media. For instance, the virtual event may be broadcast via satellite, via cable, telephone network, or any other known communication means.
The broadcast may be made to a television, a cell phone, a PDA, a kiosk, a WiFi enabled tablet, or any online, mobile betting type device. The virtual event may be broadcast in real-time with live computer generated commentary e. Additionally, broadcast systems may also transmit and display data about the events, as well as producing hardcopy material for posters, pamphlets and magazines.
The outcome of the virtual event may be determined by a plurality of factors that include the intrinsic abilities of the competitor, for example, the competitor's training, how the competitor prepared for the event, the competitor's natural predispositions to perform in the conditions presented by the venue, the tactics the competitor has employed for the virtual event, and the competitor's reaction and natural predisposition to react to the events that occur as the event unfolds real-time.
For example, for a virtual horse race, in addition to the natural ability and condition of the horse, the outcome of a horse race may depend upon a number of factors, including but not limited to, the training schedule of the horse, the horse's running strategy, the track surface and weather conditions, as well as real-time decisions in the race.
In addition to the characteristics of a participant horse , there may be a controlling factor imposed by a secondary, but related, participant jockey. For instance, there are other sports where there are such combinations, such as motor events, where there exists a vehicle and a driver.
Since these two components are logically separable, different combinations may produce different results, as in the real world. As a result, the events may be handicapped by the bettors placing wagers, and those who study and understand the form of the competitors can anticipate the strategy and tactics of the competitors, thus bettors can try to predict the impact of the conditions on the competition which may create an advantage over other bettors. The odds of predicting outcomes and successfully winning money increase for a bettor that is knowledgeable of the sport and the contestants.
Therefore, successful wagering on these events requires skill and not just pure chance. Thus, for instance, in the case of a horse race, a bettor that has the ability, desire, or skill to analyze historical horse racing data increases his chances of earning a higher return on the money he has wagered. The more knowledge a bettor has regarding a horse, the horse's behavior in a given situation, the track, and the weather conditions, the rider and the trainer, the greater the potential return the handicapper can have on their wagers.
For instance, if a player is knowledgeable of a horse's characteristics e. The horse genetics are calculated using genetic algorithms by novel application of well-known prior arts, and applied to the parameters that govern the horse.
The horse genetics system is the means by which horses are bred and created in the game world database. The genetics system makes use of genetic algorithms to encode the horse parameters, the steps are outlined as follows; a Begin with two different horses, with speed, stamina and acceleration, b encode these three parameters into binary form, c pinpoint cross over points where binary bits may be swapped at a specified probability for each parameter, and apply this, d mutate bits at a very low probability, e create a new horse by averaging the final bit strings, f finally we rationalize the offspring by ensuring that the values fall within allowed limits.
If the horse falls outside of the limits it is discarded, and the breeding process repeated. Once a valid horse is bred, the name selection system uses simple word libraries that are combined in order to generate a new name. Breeding experiments were carried out to see what the results of interbreeding and racing these horses might be in particular the relationship between the performance and parentage, illustrated in FIG.
It was found that continually breeding horses using the method outlined created real performance bloodlines which could be tracked, and sometimes random interbreeding lead to genetic dead-ends, as good factors are bred out. Thus selection of breeding pairs was an important factor in any genetics based breeding system.
In other words, good horses tended to breed above average offspring, whereas bad horses bred underperforming offspring, when the two were mixed, the result was less defined as you may have traits from both parents.
Because the parameter information is never exposed to players, they are able to follow horses by their performance alone, and a clever and observant player may get an advantage by analyzing the bloodline of a horse, over the casual player.
Optionally, the virtual event may include sporting events with famous athletes or competitors in history, or competitors who may never have competed against each other and these may be pitted against one another in a virtual sports contest that is broadcast globally. For instance, a virtual boxing match may be created where Muhammad Ali could be slated to box against Mike Tyson. Alternatively, a virtual horse race where Secretariat races against War Admiral may be provided.
The possibilities of the number of virtual sporting events are unlimited. Any famous historical athlete may be placed in competition with another athlete. Athletes famous in one sport may be placed in competition with athletes in a different sport. As long as the characteristics of the sports figure are known, any sports figure can be placed to virtually compete against any other sports figure in any sport. This principle can be extended to any public figure for more appealing variation, for instance historically important world leaders riding against each other in the Grand National.
The virtual event software may be integrated into existing pari-mutuel event wagering software, which are utilized in venues such as a casino, horse track, advance deposit wagering company, off-track-betting agency, and the like, using defined software based interfaces APIs. An API may also provide a means to query the game world so that other applications that need to access and display the data can be built or integrated with partner sites.
Also, an optional dynamic flash interface may be used that can be launched, for instance, on a partner's website. The interface may integrate both data and betting facilities into one place so that bettors can have a self contained experience.
The figures described above show one physical element to perform a function, but it is understood that the functionality can be divided between one or more similar elements to share the responsibilities of the function to be performed, as is well known in arts in this area of practice.
The structure of the system and methods of the present invention will be explained in reference to FIG. A virtual world engine 10 includes a game database that stores all the attributes that comprise each virtual game world and its inhabitants. Such a server can support high concurrent usage and enable the game database to store millions of points of information about the world and events that makeup the world. A game simulation module can produce all the data points necessary to make a virtual game world and these data points are stored in the game database which form the virtual world engine If there is more than one game simulation module responsible for running a part of the virtual game world, the other game simulation modules interface with other modules by exchanging data via the game database The virtual event engine 20 may include a scheduling module that responds to virtual events created between competitors existing in the virtual game world, and based on event data created in the virtual world engine 10 make a video representation of the event.
As part of the virtual event engine 20 , the scheduling module will run program timelines with event data, adverts, and information for players so that play out is achieved 24 hours a day and 7 days a week. The scheduling module may run several automated timelines, with different periodicity between wagering events. For example, there may be a 2-minute timeline, a 6-minute timeline and a minute timeline, and the timeline can be any length between competition events. Additionally, the scheduling module can be configured to describe and display special events analogous to real.
The scheduling module may also incorporate a game grading system for individual competitors. For instance, in horse racing there are maiden races, and thoroughbred races, and events are graded so that horses of peer ability race against each other. The lines are then delivered or made public to the betters before the race begins as a guideline predictor of the potential outcome.
In order to facilitate pari-mutuel wagering, the virtual world API , delivers historical information to bettors, which allow them to make certain judgments about the potential performance of competitors in an event, and therefore how they should place wagers. Such information provided includes, but is not limited to: a last 10 wins, places and shows, b last 10 wins, places and shows on a particular surface, c breeding and genetic heritage, c positions, times and speeds for previous races, d quarter times, positions and speeds for previous races, e jockey and trainers for previous races, f surface, going and race conditions for previous races, g trap position for previous races, h rating value, calculated by par time comparison for a particular track.
For fixed odds wagering, and to support partner bookmakers, a probability module is capable of creating real odds against virtual game events for utilization. The odds offered on each event are calculated by a unique method.
Before an event is due to be displayed in real time to the public, an array of probability engines slaves, as shown in FIG. The data from the simulated events made in the probability engines slaves can be sent to a master probability engine After thousands of runs, a probability distribution or odds may be created for the event in the odds calculation module All the outcomes assembled in the master probability engine are processed and used to produce the odds for each of the events.
The number of times needed to simulate an event to produce a useable set of odds depends on the complexity of the event. For simple win place and show events, it can be shown that a relatively few runs are required to secure statistically valid or useable odds. For more complex odds, such as exacta and trifecta, more runs may be required to obtain statistically valid odds because the number of outcomes is increased. This process has been proven to produce accurate odds by means of Pearson Correlation analysis of sets of results of different run sizes.
The probability system is a distributed process allowing for very fast simulation of events in adequate time before the event is due to run in real time for public display. The optimum number of runs is determined for the time allowed before an event is to be displayed to the public to produce the result, and weighed against the precision or validity of the outcome desired and is called a configuration preference. The graph shows that there are definite trends in likelihood of a particular horse winning; these are due to the deterministic characteristics of the simulation and the algorithms applied to create an event, i.
The variation seen in FIG. The data shows that the probability of a horse achieving first is predicted within a few percent for each set of races. If this was a purely random event, the probability over races for any horse coming in first would be equal when the number of runs computed are statistically valid, and there would be no tendency for one horse to win. An example of the probability distribution calculation for a fixed odds event follows:.
The master probability engine can make requests simultaneously to all connected slaves, or can make requests in the many well known methods in this area of practice, such as round robin, etc. This means the calculation can be a linear relationship to the number of probability engine slaves connected and the capacity of the network;. The result data consists of the position of every competitor as they cross the finish line;.
The game simulation module and the simulation module may generate the outcome of events between competitors in the game world, and may be triggered by the program schedule module All the necessary data to start the simulations may be requested from the game database in advance by the program schedule module and passed to the game simulation module or simulation module The simulations in the probability module are a combination of artificial intelligence AI decision-making systems, and rules and constraints are coupled with stochastic variation.
Competitor seek decisions are algorithms that affect the competitors tactics and tendencies. A competitor enters a competition with some clearly defined goals that it will try to stick, but the rules and constraints of the event are followed. Rules and Constraints govern the virtual competitor behavior during the event. Variations are algorithms that inject a small variance around a perfect outcome.
A perfect outcome is defined as the best solution to the algorithm to meet an objective; variations will reduce the likelihood of reaching the perfect outcome, and therefore the objective, and ensure varying outcomes of an event. Multiple variable vector computations are performed for each competitor for each frame that makes up an event. The algorithms compute each piece of data to make a frame for each step of the race until the race is finished.
The algorithms compute numerous values for each frame of the event based on the numerous variables required to compute each algorithm. Each rule, constraint, and variable and their interrelations with other rules, constraints, and variables are governed by an algorithm. The decisions, goals, rules, and constraints for events with competitors that compete to finish first around a track are the same for all competitions of this type. The decisions, goals, rules, and constraints for competition events other than racing around a track are similar to those described below in more detail.
However, the deviations, differences, and types of variables in other types of competition events are well known and the probability distribution or odds calculations can be applied to other competitive events. The techniques described can be applied to other simulations of many types of events in order to calculate probabilities of a particular outcome.
To define a race simulation there are two primary entities, summarized in the next two paragraphs, and examined in detail in the subsequent paragraphs. The start point is where the gates are set, the end point is where the finish post is set, the bounding curves correspond to the rail boundaries, and the racing line corresponds to the optimal line around the track.
Each track is a different shape and completely defined in 3D space. These boundaries are used as inputs in the simulation to ensure competitors stay within the bounds of the track, and run from the start point to the finish point. This is shown in FIG. Additionally a track will have a surface with a condition that has been defined by accumulation of weather effects. Within the Virtual World, if the weather is wet then the track becomes progressively wetter, if the weather turns fine, then the track dries out.
This is modelled as a sliding scale of wetness to dryness, and this value of wetness to dryness may impeded or help competitors, who have a favoured value. The variation is modelled as a penalty that is proportional to the difference between the actual wetness of the track and the competitor's affinity for a particular wetness. Stamina is a definition of a competitor's fuel.
The more stamina a competitor has, the more fuel it is able to expend, fuel is expended whenever a competitor manoeuvres. More stamina is used for more complex manoeuvres. Maximum acceleration is defined as the maximum rate the competitor can change speed; if a competitor changes speed faster then it uses more stamina.
Maximum speed is the maximum achievable speed, if a competitor travels at this speed; it burns stamina at an increased rate. A competitor will have an optimum speed for the track, at which its stamina is burnt at an optimal rate in order to reach the finish line and have zero stamina left.
In practice the speed will not be optimal, because the competitor will be forced to make manoeuvres in order to change or be consistent with its tactic, avoid other competitors and keep away from track boundaries. This means that the stamina is changed, and the competitor must continually re-evaluate how best to burn stamina in order to complete the race. Consistency controls how much random factors can affect a horse's performance during a race.
Less consistent horses have a potentially larger variation of algorithm outcome, and potentially larger penalties, than more consistent ones. A competitor will have preference for a surface and a preference for a surface condition going. This is modelled as a penalty that applies if the surface and conditions are outside the competitor's preference. There will obviously be a group of competitors for a given race. Competitor Seek Decisions are variables or choices that competitors make while the competition is being run or conducted and these effect the outcome of the competition.
For example, with a horse competitor: a The horse will try and stay close to the racing line, as this defines the most efficient way around the track; b Horses will try and get to the inside rail, this is associated with the racing line; c The horses will try to avoid other horses, by either braking or choosing a passing trajectory; d Horses will try and maintain their chosen tactic, whilst balancing their stamina usage; e At their sprint points, horses will try and move laterally away from other horses in order to have a clear line of sprint for the finish; f Horses will always try to get to the finish line.
Competitor Rules and Constraints are limitations placed on a competitor during an event. For example, with a horse race: a Horses cannot pass through or collide violently with other horses; b Horses cannot pass outside the track bounds; c Horses must run from the starting line to the finish line in that direction; d Horses cannot fly; trajectories are limited to the plane of the race track; e Horses cannot burn more than their stamina usage; f Horses cannot accelerate faster than their maximum acceleration; g Horses cannot go faster than their maximum speed; h Horses cannot exceed their maximum turn rate for directional changes ; i Horses cannot exceed their maximum turn angle, from their trajectory.
Variations of a value in an event can fluctuate each time competitors' values are computed to determine the next frame of the event as the event proceeds. A 10 unit variation means that a calculated point can be within units on either side of the actual point value.
It is important to note that these effects can be applied to each frame, every other frame, or many other well known groupings in the arts of frames that makeup a race. Typically a race will have about frames, and though the variations at first glance can be very small, these effects can accumulate or cancel each other out during the race as a whole.
Another important point is that variation is usually a small percentage of a simulation parameter, and as such does not necessarily define the outcome of the event as a whole. A virtual competitor estimates or analyzes its speed at every frame to decide what speed the competitor should be going to achieve its tactical goals.
The speed estimation is modeled as a small variation around the perfect speed of the competitor calculated by the algorithms. The graphs in FIG. There are minute differences in the estimated and actual speed needed in any particular frame, thus horses with lower speed consistency will find slightly more deviation, than horses with more consistent speeds.
Estimation of range or distance between competitors is computed. For example, a horse competitor calculates his range to the leader for every frame to decide how far away other competitors are in comparison. The range value will affect other algorithms. For example, if the horse is going outside its chosen range, the algorithm that controls the acceleration of the horse will increase the horse's pace so the horse can try and make up the difference.
A tactic switch is a decision based on whether a competitor should change their competition strategy. For example, if a horse should switch its tactic to following the leader, being the leader, or staying in the middle of the pack. Sprint point is the point at which a competitor uses extra energy or strength to improve their position immediately near the end of a competition.
For example, the degree the horses sprint for the finish line, and there is a small uncertainty when a sprint point begins for a particular horse. Start delay is the delay a competitor experiences when starting a competition. For example, a horse experiences delay getting out of the gate. In practice, this is up to 1 second of fumble.
Penalties are assigned to competitors. For example, some horses are penalized some degree before the race begins. The going penalty is a penalty intrinsic to the competitor, which is applied if the competitor does not find the going conditions favorable. A competitor will have a perfect going value inside this range, deviation from this perfect value, will cause penalty to be applied to this speed function. Stamina Usage is the rate at which a competitor burns their required fuel to compete during a competition.
This training provides information on state and local public health emergency response planning for radiological and nuclear terrorism incidents. Public health officials at the state and local levels requested additional guidance on adapting all-hazards state and local emergency preparedness plans for radiological and nuclear incidents involving mass casualties. In response to these requests, this course will provide public health officials with the most current information regarding public health planning for response to radiation emergencies, including information on local government roles and responsibilities, radiologic monitoring of people population monitoring , pharmaceutical countermeasures deployed by the strategic national stockpile, and the role of communications in a radiation emergency.
This may include state, local, tribal, and territorial health agency senior officials, emergency planners, epidemiologists, environmental health specialists, public health physicians and nurses, public health students, sanitarians, hazardous materials team members, and first responders. Some introductory knowledge of response to radiological terrorism incidents such as that provided in earlier CE-approved CDC programs produced by Radiation Studies is highly recommended.
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